An investigation has been made of the flow of bubbly mixtures in horizontal pipes, together with some related work on other flow patterns. Pressure drop is calculated through the use of a conventional friction factor. In the bubble-flow regime, it is found that the friction factor is approximately equal to or slightly greater than the friction factor for liquid flowing
alone in the pipe. The bubbles move at nearly the mean velocity of the liquid while their size is inversely proportional to the liquid velocity and directly proportional to the square root of the pipe diameter. The use of a friction factor for calculating pressure drop for other than bubble flow may also be useful, but more study is necessary to determine friction factors.
James, Walter; Silberman, Edward.
Two-Phase Flow Studies in Horizontal Pipes with Special Reference to Bubbly Mixtures.
St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Laboratory.
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