JTLU Volume 14, No. 1 (2021)

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Note: Starting in 2017, the Journal of Transport and Land Use will release articles as they are published. They will no longer be published in three separate issues.
  • Table of Contents:
  • United States fatal pedestrian crash hot spot locations and characteristics, pp. 1-23
  • Identification of the geographical extent of an area benefiting from a transportation project: A generalized synthetic control, pp. 25-45
  • Driving change: Exploring the adoption of multimodal local traffic impact assessment practices, pp. 47-64
  • An integrated land-use/transportation forecasting and planning model: A metropolitan planning support system, pp. 65-86
  • Borrowed sizes: A hedonic price approach to the value of network structure in public transport systems, pp. 87-103
  • Car ownership and commuting mode of the “original” residents in a high-density city center: A case study in Shanghai, pp. 105-124
  • Finding the right tools for the job: Instrument mixes for land use and transport integration in the Netherlands, pp. 125-149
  • A needs-gap analysis of street space allocation, pp. 151-170
  • The role of perceived satisfaction and the built environment on the frequency of cycle-commuting, pp. 171-196
  • Drawing the map: The creation and regulation of geographic constraints on shared bikes and e-scooters in San Francisco, CA, pp. 197-218
  • An agent-based transportation impact sketch planning (TISP) model system, pp. 219-253
  • Transit-oriented development for older adults: A survey of current practices among transit agencies and local governments in the US, pp. 255-276
  • The opportunity cost of parking requirements: Would Silicon Valley be richer if its parking requirements were lower?, pp. 277-301
  • A framework to generate virtual cities as sandboxes for land use-transport interaction models, pp. 303-323
  • Traffic noise feedback in agent-based Integrated Land-Use/Transport Models, pp. 325-344
  • Shifting perspectives: A comparison of travel-time-based and carbon-based accessibility landscapes, pp. 345-365
  • Differences in ride-hailing adoption by older Californians among types of locations, pp. 367-387
  • Understanding jobs-housing imbalance in urban China: A case study of Shanghai, pp. 389-415
  • Modelling children’s independent territorial range by discretionary and nondiscretionary trips, pp. 417-439
  • The relationship between urban form and mode choice in US and Mexican cities: A comparative analysis of workers’ commutes, pp. 441-462
  • Accessibility and uncertainty: An empirical analysis of option value in transport, pp. 463-477
  • To e-bike or not to e-bike? A study of the impact of the built environment on commute mode choice in a small Chinese city, pp. 479-497
  • Evaluating demand responsive transit services using a density-based trip rate metric, pp. 499-519
  • A brief discussion on the treatment of spatial correlation in multinomial discrete models, pp. 521-535
  • Metro station inauguration, housing prices, and transportation accessibility: Tehran case study, pp. 537-561
  • Evaluation of the land value-added benefit brought by urban rail transit: The case in Changsha, China, pp. 563-582
  • Impacts of high-speed rail development on urban land expansion and utilization intensity in China, pp. 583-601
  • Parking and competition for space in urban neighborhoods: Residents’ perceptions of traffic and parking-related conflicts, pp. 603-623
  • Modeling residential relocation choices: An egalitarian bargaining approach and a comparative study, pp. 625-645
  • Shorter commutes, but for whom? Comparing the distributional effects of Bus Rapid Transit on commute times in Cape Town, South Africa, and Barranquilla, Colombia, pp. 647-667
  • Modeling enterprise location choice decision behavior, pp. 669-691
  • Infrastructure is not enough: Interactions between the environment, socioeconomic disadvantage, and cycling participation in England, pp. 693-714
  • Investigation on railway investment-induced neighborhood change and local spatial spillover effects in Nagoya, Japan, pp. 715-735
  • How does neighborhood walkability affect obesity? The mediating role of commute mode, pp. 737-759
  • Relationship between urban tourism traffic and tourism land use: A case study of Xiamen Island, pp. 761-776
  • Spatial parameters for transportation: A multi-modal approach for modelling the urban spatial structure using deep learning and remote sensing, pp. 777-803
  • Land use uncertainty in transportation forecast, pp. 805-820
  • Impacts of light rail in a mid-sized city: Evidence from Olsztyn, Poland, pp. 821-840
  • Household structure and urban opportunities: Evaluating differences in the accessibility to jobs, education and leisure in São Paulo, pp. 841-862
  • Planning a high-frequency transfer-based bus network: How do we get there?, pp. 863-884
  • Exposure, timing, and vulnerability: The role of public transport in inducing gentrification, pp. 885-910
  • Human rights to the street: Ethical frameworks to guide planning, design, and engineering decisions toward livability, equity, and justice, pp. 911-931
  • A system of shared autonomous vehicles for Chicago: Understanding the effects of geofencing the service, pp. 933-948
  • If you build it, they will change: Evaluating the impact of commuter rail stations on real estate values and neighborhood composition in the Rotterdam–The Hague metropolitan area, the Netherlands, pp. 949-973
  • Residential location choice and its effects on travel satisfaction in a context of short-term transnational relocation, pp. 975-994
  • Satisfaction with travel, ideal commuting, and accessibility to employment, pp. 975-1017
  • Exploring the benefits of minimobility in the urban context: The case of central Stockholm, pp. 1019-1037
  • A literature review on park-and-rides, pp. 1039-1060
  • Viewpoint: Turning streets into housing, pp. 1061-1073
  • Chasing the city that cannot stop: Exploring transportation and urban co-development in São Paulo’s history, pp. 1075-1098
  • Association of perceived environment walkability with purposive and discursive walking for urban design strategies, pp. 1099-1127
  • Built environment correlates of walking for transportation: Differences between commuting and non-commuting trips, pp. 1129-1148
  • Exploring the interaction effect of poverty concentration and transit service on highway traffic during the COVID-19 lockdown, pp. 1149-1164
  • Place quality in high-speed rail station areas: Concept definition, pp. 1165-1186
  • The effects of pedestrian and bicycle exposure on crash risk in Minneapolis, pp. 1187-1208
  • Accessibility: Distribution across diverse populations, pp. 1209-1224
  • The evolution of choice set formation in dwelling and location with rising prices: A decadal panel analysis in the Greater Toronto Area, pp. 1227-1247
  • Developing vehicular and non-vehicular trip generation models for mid-rise residential buildings in Kelowna, British Columbia: Assessing the impact of built environment, land use, and neighborhood characteristics, pp. 1249-1274
  • Public transport strategy: Minimal service vs. competitor to the car, pp. 1275-1294
  • Spatiotemporal effects of proximity to metro extension on housing price dynamics in Manhattan, New York City, pp. 1295-1315
  • Mobility and accessibility paradigms in Dutch policies: An empirical analysis, pp. 1317-1340
  • Advances in pedestrian travel monitoring: Temporal patterns and spatial characteristics using pedestrian push-button data from Utah traffic signals, pp. 1341-1360
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      Advances in pedestrian travel monitoring: Temporal patterns and spatial characteristics using pedestrian push-button data from Utah traffic signals
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2021) Humagain, Prasanna; Singleton, Patrick A.
      In this study, we advanced pedestrian travel monitoring using a novel data source: pedestrian push-button presses obtained from archived traffic signal controller logs at more than 1,500 signalized intersections in Utah over one year. The purposes of this study were to: (1) quantify pedestrian activity patterns; (2) create factor groups and expansion/adjustment factors from these temporal patterns; and (3) explore relationships between patterns and spatial characteristics. Using empirical clustering, we classified signals into five groups, based on normalized hourly/weekly counts (each hour’s proportion of weekly totals, or the inverse of the expansion factors), and three clusters with similar monthly adjustment factors. We also used multinomial logit models to identify spatial characteristics (land use, built environment, socio-economic characteristics, and climatic regions) associated with different temporal patterns. For example, we found that signals near schools were much more likely to have bimodal daily peak hours and lower pedestrian activity during out-of-school months. Despite these good results, our hourly/weekday patterns differed less than in past research, highlighting the limits of existing infrastructure for capturing all kinds of activity patterns. Nevertheless, we demonstrated that signals with push-button data are a useful supplement to existing permanent counters within a broader pedestrian traffic monitoring program.
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      Mobility and accessibility paradigms in Dutch policies: An empirical analysis
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2021) Akse, Ruben; Thomas, Tom; Geurs, Karst
      To promote sustainable urban development, transport policies need to change from a car-oriented mobility planning paradigm to an accessibility-based paradigm, integrating land-use and transport policies. This paper uses the concept of planning paradigms to describe the current status of municipal transport planning and problem framing. The dominant transport planning paradigm of 172 Dutch municipalities is determined, based on a conceptual framework with 24 mobility and accessibility planning criteria. Statistical analysis is then conducted to find linkages between the planning paradigm and transport, land-use, and institutional characteristics of the municipalities. We show that the mobility planning paradigm still dominates Dutch municipal transport planning, and the accessibility planning paradigm is mostly found in large cities and highly urban municipalities. However, we do find indications of slow change in the transport planning paradigms in Dutch municipalities, as older policy documents are more (car) mobility focused than newer policy documents. Further research is necessary to examine the evolution of the paradigm shift in municipal transport planning over time and what factors promote the realization of such a paradigm shift.
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      Spatiotemporal effects of proximity to metro extension on housing price dynamics in Manhattan, New York City
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2021) Guan, ChengHe; Tan, Mark Junjie; Peiser, Richard
      Investment in public transportation such as a metro line extension is often capitalized partially into housing values due to the spatiotemporal effects. Using housing transaction data from 2014 to 2019, this paper studies the Second Avenue Subway or Q-line extension in New York City’s Manhattan borough. Multiple metro station catchment areas were investigated using spatial autocorrelation-corrected hedonic pricing models to capture the variation of housing price dynamics. The results indicate that properties in closer proximity to the Q-line extension received higher price discounts. The effect varied by occupancy type and building form: condominiums experienced the highest price discount, while walk-up and elevator co-ops experienced a price premium. After controlling for location variations, we observed price discounts on the westside and price premiums on the eastside of the Q-line. Residential properties within 150 m west to the Q-line extension received the highest price discount post operation, while on the eastside, properties in the same proximity received the highest price premium. The anticipation effect varies by distance to metro extension stations, both before and after the operation of metro line extension. We discuss the disruption of metro construction on the housing market depending on housing type, location variation, and changes over time.
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      Public transport strategy: Minimal service vs. competitor to the car
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2021) Silva, Cecília; Cadima, Catarina; Castro, Nayanne; Tennøy, Aud
      With regard to public policy for public transport services, two dominant approaches are found: the provision of minimal services to the car-less population, or the provision of a service that competes directly with the car (in terms of time, cost, convenience, etc.). Increased acknowledgement of the need to mitigate traffic growth and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has led to a growing need to shift from the former to the latter, encouraging the use of public transport. This paper sets out to explore whether competitiveness with the car is a priority for the public transport planning of medium-sized European cities, as well as whether the change in European regulation (European Commission, 2007) has managed to contribute to the acceptance of this priority. In this study, we take a closer look at a country undergoing significant regulatory and procedural transformations. An exploratory analysis is conducted regarding plans, actions, and development projects in recent years in four Portuguese municipalities. Relevant planners and transport authorities are interviewed on matters such as how local policies and plans favor public transport; how the planning process was implemented; the actors involved; and the support tools used to achieve the established goals. The findings reveal that relative competitiveness of public transport is considered important by planning practitioners. Nevertheless, other concerns seem to be more timely, such as, providing minimal services, restructuring existing networks, and budget constraints. The results suggest that changes in the planning process have been overwhelming and are seen as restricting the steps required toward making public transport more competitive vis-à-vis the car. So far, local authorities recognize the potential of adding relative competitiveness concerns in the future, as well as the added value of planning support tools capable of revealing such relative competitiveness.
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      Developing vehicular and non-vehicular trip generation models for mid-rise residential buildings in Kelowna, British Columbia: Assessing the impact of built environment, land use, and neighborhood characteristics
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2021) Orvin, Muntahith Mehadil; Ahmed, Sheikh Daryus; Fatmi, Mahmudur Rahman; Lovegrove, Gordon
      This study develops vehicular and non-vehicular trip generation models for mid-rise, multi-family residential developments. A comparative analysis of observed and Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) trip rates suggests that ITE rates consistently overestimate. A latent segmentation-based negative binomial (LSNB) model is developed to improve the methodology for estimating vehicular and non-vehicular trips. One of the key features of an LSNB model is to capture heterogeneity. Segment allocation results for the vehicular and non-vehicular models suggest that one segment includes suburban developments, whereas the other includes urban developments. Results reveal that a higher number of dwelling units is likely to be associated with increased vehicle trips. For non-vehicular trips, a higher number of dwelling units and increased recreational opportunities are more likely to increase trip generation. The LSNB model confirms the existence of significant heterogeneity. For instance, higher land-use mix has a higher probability to deter vehicular trips in urban areas, whereas trips in the suburban areas are likely to continue increasing. Higher density of bus routes and sidewalks are likely to be associated with increased non-vehicular trips in urban areas, yet such trips are likely to decrease in suburban areas. An interesting finding is that higher bikeability in suburban areas is more likely to increase non-vehicular trips. The findings of this study are expected to assist engineers and planners to predict vehicular and non-vehicular trips with higher accuracy.
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      The evolution of choice set formation in dwelling and location with rising prices: A decadal panel analysis in the Greater Toronto Area
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2021) Hawkins, Jason; Nurul Habib, Khandker
      Home location choice is based on both the characteristics of the dwelling (e.g., size, style, number of bedrooms) and the location (e.g., proximity to work, quality of schools, accessibility). Recent years have seen a steep increase in the price of housing in many major cities. In this research, we examine how these price increases are affecting the types of dwelling and locations considered by households. A large sample of real estate listings from 2006 and 2016 from the Greater Toronto Area is used to develop the empirical models. Two recently developed discrete choice models are used in the study: a nested logit model with latent class feedback (LCF) and a semi-compensatory independent availability logit (SCIAL) model. A method of alternative aggregation is proposed to overcome the computational hurdle that often impedes the estimation of choice set models. We find a significant increase in the probability of larger households considering townhouses and apartments over detached single-family dwellings between 2006 and 2016.
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      Accessibility: Distribution across diverse populations
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2021) Carlson, Kristin; Owen, Andrew
      High-resolution data are used to evaluate the distribution of job accessibility among workers at the national, state, regional, and urban scales. Here, accessibility refers to the ease of reaching valuable destinations by transit and driving time. Annually updated accessibility datasets produced by the National Accessibility Evaluation are paired with Census data to tie accessibility, jobs, and worker information at the block level. Minnesota is selected as a case study for analyzing accessibility and drawing findings from the spatial datasets. The average accessibility by worker age, monthly earnings, educational attainment, race, and sex are calculated using data for the weekday morning commute by automobile and transit. The greatest variation in average accessibility among demographic groups is found for worker race. Based on home location, non-White workers systematically experience far higher accessibility to jobs by both automobile and transit than White workers as a percent difference from the population average. The finding holds at the national, state, and regional geographies. Additional findings are presented for each demographic group. The analyses presented here can be applied to other states and regions to; identify where accessibility is distributed most and least equitably, and to guide policy decisions for equitable job, housing, and transportation investments.
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      The effects of pedestrian and bicycle exposure on crash risk in Minneapolis
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2021) Tao, Tao; Lindsey, Greg; Cao, Jason; Wang, Jueyu
      Exposure to risk is a theoretically important correlate of crash risk, but many safety performance functions (SPFs) for pedestrian and bicycle traffic have yet to include the mode-specific measures of exposure. When SPFs are used in the systematic approach to assess network-wide crash risk, the omission of the exposure potentially could affect the identification of high-risk locations. Using crash data from Minneapolis, this study constructs and compares two sets of SPFs, one with pedestrian and bicycle exposure variables and the other without, for network-wide intersection and mid-block crash models. Inclusion of mode-specific exposure variables improves model validity and measures of goodness-of-fit and increases accuracy of predictions of pedestrian and bicycle crash risk. Including these exposure variables in the SPFs changes the distribution of high-risk locations, including the proportion of high-risk locations in low-income and racially concentrated areas. These results confirm the importance of incorporating exposure measures within SPFs and the need for pedestrian and bicycle monitoring programs to generate exposure data.
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      Place quality in high-speed rail station areas: Concept definition
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2021) Du, Jinglun; Druta, Oana; van Wesemael, Pieter
      High-speed railway (HSR) station areas are expected to benefit urban environments, not simply as transportation or economic hubs but also as urban places contributing to living quality. However, the relationship between HSR and place quality has not received systematic attention, despite the evolution of urban planning paradigms toward a clearer focus on quality of life. We have reviewed 44 academic articles written between 1996 and 2019 and analyzed concepts of place quality spanning the disciplines of urban design, urban planning, and urban economics. We identified three dimensions commonly associated with quality of place: a spatial dimension associated with aesthetic qualities of urban spaces; a socio-cultural dimension associated with experienced “sense of place”; and an economic dimension associated with the agglomeration of economic activities. Then we worked out these three dimensions in the context of HSR station areas and attributed features accordingly. We concluded that the economic dimension far outweighs the others in academic debates, with dominant theories being primarily concerned with land use, accessibility, and economic performance. Studies from the urban design field have tackled the spatial elements of place quality and showed a strong correlation with economic dimension. However, the literature remains insufficiently developed when it comes to addressing user experience and “sense of place.”
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      Exploring the interaction effect of poverty concentration and transit service on highway traffic during the COVID-19 lockdown
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2021) Tao, Tao; Cao, Jason
      During COVID-19 lockdowns, transit agencies need to respond to the decline in travel but also maintain the essential mobility of transit-dependent people. However, there are a few lessons that scholars and practitioners can learn from. Using highway traffic data in the Twin Cities, this study applies a generalized additive model to explore the relationships among the share of low-income population, transit service, and highway traffic during the week that occurred right after the 2020 stay-at-home order. Our results substantiate that transportation impacts are spread unevenly across different income groups and low-income people are less able to reduce travel, leading to equity concerns. Moreover, transit supply influences highway traffic differently in areas with different shares of low-income people. Our study suggests that transportation agencies should provide more affordable travel options for areas with concentrated poverty during lockdowns. In addition, transit agencies should manage transit supply strategically depending on the share of low-income people to better meet people’s mobility needs.
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      Built environment correlates of walking for transportation: Differences between commuting and non-commuting trips
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2021) Liu, Jixiang; Zhou, Jiangping; Xiao, Longzhu
      As a sustainable mode of travel, walking for transportation has multiple environmental, social, and health-related benefits. In existing studies, however, such walking has rarely been differentiated between commuting and non-commuting trips. Using multilevel zero-inflated negative binomial regression and multilevel Tobit regression models, this study empirically examines the frequency and duration of commuting and non-commuting walking and their correlates in Xiamen, China. It finds that (1) non-commuting walking, on average, has a higher frequency and longer duration than commuting walking; (2) most socio-demographic variables are significant predictors, and age, occupation, and family size have opposite-direction effects on commuting and non-commuting walking; and (3) different sets of built environment variables are correlated with commuting and non-commuting walking, and the built environment collectively influences the latter more significantly than the former. The findings provide useful references for customized interventions concerning promoting commuting and non-commuting walking.
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      Association of perceived environment walkability with purposive and discursive walking for urban design strategies
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2021) Hsieh, Hsu-Sheng; Chuang, Min-Ta
      The relationship between the built environment and walking behavior has been explored extensively. However, little research has been done to either differentiate between walking for transport and walking as activity or that applies urban design tools to walkability improvement based on environment-walking associations. Therefore, this study constructed perceived environment walkability factors to replace unidentified physical environments that varied among individuals and examined their associations with walking to a destination (purposive walking) and walking as activity (discursive walking), using factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Results suggest that residential density, land-use mix diversity, and pedestrian/traffic safety were associated with purposive walking while aesthetics and crime safety were associated with discursive walking. Land-use mix access and street connectivity were common correlates of both walking patterns. This study also explored how to apply urban design tools, including land-use plans, zoning control, and urban design guidelines, to shape a walkable environment based on the environment-walking associations.
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      Chasing the city that cannot stop: Exploring transportation and urban co-development in São Paulo’s history
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2021) Costa, Adriano Borges; Zegras, Christopher; Biderman, Ciro
      We present a historical analysis of transportation and urban development in São Paulo (Brazil), attempting to discern Granger causal effects using historical land-use and transportation data from 1881 to 2013. Our results align with the hypothesis commonly stated in the literature about the relevance of road transportation in São Paulo’s peripheral urban expansion during the twentieth century. We find, however, more complex relationships, and changes in them, over time. Over the entire 130 years, we find that urban expansion and road development pushed and pulled each other, in a somewhat “orderly” way. On the other hand, while roads are not linked to densification, we find that mass transit infrastructure did lead to building densification. Distinguishing among distinct periods adds further insights. Examining São Paulo’s “streetcar era” we find joint development of streetcar lines and urban expansion – evidence of joint development consistent with “streetcar suburbs.” Streetcars also led to building densification during this early period. In subsequent decades, up until the mid-1970s, mass transit investments are virtually non-existent and road transportation essentially chases urban expansion, not vice versa. Finally, the last four decades reveal a return to “orderly” patterns of road expansion and urbanization but no evidence of mass transit infrastructure’s effects on urbanization or densification. The analysis illustrates how transportation investment choices have important consequences for urban growth, exerting long-lasting influences on its urban form.
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      Viewpoint: Turning streets into housing
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2021) Millard-Ball, Adam
      I argue that wide residential streets in US cities are both a contributor to homelessness and a potential strategy to provide more affordable housing. In residential neighborhoods, subdivision ordinances typically set binding standards for street width, far in excess of what is economically optimal or what private developers and residents would likely prefer. These street width standards are one contributor to high housing costs and supply restrictions, which exacerbate the housing affordability crisis in high-cost cities. Planning for autonomous vehicles highlights the overprovision of streets in urban areas. Because they can evade municipal anti-camping restrictions that restrict the use of streets by unhoused people, autonomous camper vans have the ability to blur the distinction between land for housing and land for streets. I propose two strategies through which excess street space can accommodate housing in a formalized way. First, cities could permit camper van parking on the right-of-way, analogous to liveaboard canal boats that provide housing options in some UK cities. Second, extending private residential lots into the right-of-way would create space for front-yard accessory dwelling units.
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      A literature review on park-and-rides
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2021) Haque, Antora Mohsena; Brakewood, Candace; Rezaei, Shahrbanoo; Khojandi, Anahita
      American cities have been implementing park-and-rides (PNRs) since the 1930s; however, there has been a recent resurgence of literature examining this type of transit station. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of the current literature on PNRs and directions for future research. PNR studies published in the last ten years were reviewed and text mining was applied to extract key themes. Six themes were identified. The two most common areas of research were network equilibrium and optimization (12 of 37 studies) and demand models (8 of 37 studies). This was followed by guidelines and best practices as well as comparative studies (6 of 37 studies each). Parking utilization had the fewest number of recent studies (3 of 37 studies). This review revealed that the majority of PNR studies were conducted in geographic areas with extensive transit services, most studies have focused on rail-based PNRs, and the most widely used method was multinomial logit. Some areas for future research include studying remote PNRs, examining bus-based PNRs, and assessing the impact of emerging modes on PNR utilization. This systematic review could assist planners and transit agencies in further improving sustainable PNR networks in their cities.
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      Exploring the benefits of minimobility in the urban context: The case of central Stockholm
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2021) Riggs, William; Shukla, Shivani
      Over the past decade, there has been rapid growth in the development and infusion of new and disruptive transportation. Some of the pivotal emergent technologies range from micro-mobility and bikeshare to ridesourcing that is set to utilize automated vehicles. This paper introduces and defines minimobility that falls between a regular ridesourcing/taxi option and micromobility, and also providing critical logistics services during the era of COVID-19. In Central Stockholm the platform has provided a safe and environmentally friendly mode choice that occupies limited space and efficiently serves on the congested city network. We explore potential economic and environmental benefits of minimobility, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of deploying such a service. While we demonstrate a general increase in VMT, consistent with other work showing increased travel from new mobility, due to the electric platform this increase in customer access to mobility results in minimal GHG impacts. This informs how planners and engineers can explore minimobility platforms not only as reduced emissions solutions to urban transit issues but as tools to increase total mobility particularly for the most vulnerable.
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      Satisfaction with travel, ideal commuting, and accessibility to employment
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2021) Pritchard, John P.; Geurs, Karst; Tomasiello, Diego B.; Slovic, Anne Dorothee; Nardocci, Adelaide; Kumar, Prashant; Giannotti, Mariana; Hagen-Zanker, Alex
      This paper explores relationships between commuting times, job accessibility, and commuting satisfaction based on a large-scale survey applied in the Greater London Area (GLA), the municipality of São Paulo (MSP) and the Dutch Randstad (NLR). Potential accessibility to jobs is estimated under 3 different scenarios: reported actual commuting times (ACT), ideal commuting times (ICT), and maximum willingness to commute (MCT). In addition, binary logistic regression models, estimated using generalized linear modeling (GLM), are performed to assess the impact of these temporal preferences on the likelihood of being satisfied with commuting. As expected, ideal and maximum commuting preferences strongly impact the volume and spatial distribution of the measured accessibility to jobs. In the selected case studies, estimated ICT-based job accessibility significantly decreases total measured accessibility (60 to 100 percent), with those living in the lowest accessibility zones impacted most. Furthermore, although specific results varied between regions, the overall findings show an association between ACT and satisfaction. Likewise, commuting mode is found to be a strong predictor of travel satisfaction. Those actively traveling in all three metropolitan regions tend to be more satisfied with their commutes. Potential job accessibility is found to be only weakly associated with travel satisfaction.
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      Residential location choice and its effects on travel satisfaction in a context of short-term transnational relocation
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2021) Moraes Monteiro, Mayara; de Abreu e Silva, João; Afonso, Nuno; Bláfoss Ingvardson, Jesper; de Sousa, Jorge Pinho
      Temporary opportunities for studying and working abroad have been growing globally and intensifying the movement of highly skilled temporary populations. To attract this group, cities need to address their residential and mobility needs. This study focuses on factors influencing residential and travel satisfaction of transnational temporary residents, highlighting the occurrence of residential self-selection, its impacts on residential and travel choices and on derived levels of satisfaction. We have estimated a Bayesian Structural Equations Model and found that lower levels of residential satisfaction (residential dissonance) are associated with lower rents, living farther away from the place of study or work, and having higher transport expenditures. In contrast, higher levels of residential satisfaction (residential consonance) are related to individuals’ stronger preferences for active modes, lower levels of public transport use, and reduced transport monthly expenditures, which suggest shorter commuting distances. These findings reveal the tradeoffs involving residential location, monthly rent, and transport expenditures, highlighting that providing good public transport connections can reduce the burden of commuting distances. Our results indicate that better transport supply and land-use balance near the residence can improve both residential and travel satisfaction.
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      If you build it, they will change: Evaluating the impact of commuter rail stations on real estate values and neighborhood composition in the Rotterdam–The Hague metropolitan area, the Netherlands
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2021) Forouhar, Amir; van Lierop, Dea
      In many metropolitan regions, transit-oriented developments are built to motivate the use of sustainable travel by promoting urban growth within walking distances of public transport stations. Changes in residential property values are a common way to assess the success of transit-oriented developments. However, studies that focus on property values alone have reported mixed effects. This paper attempts to evaluate the land value impact around commuter rail stations by analyzing the change in property values within the context of the transformation of socio-spatial neighborhood attributes. The study sets out to estimate the effect of Randstad Rail stations using real estate transaction data of residential properties and neighborhood socio-spatial attributes in the Rotterdam–the Hague metropolitan area of the Netherlands covering a period from 1985 to 2018. Adopting a quasi-experimental design, the effect is estimated for properties within different catchment zones around three commuter rail stations using a Difference-in-Differences Model and Multivariate Analysis of Variance. The results demonstrate the overall negative effect of the Randstad Rail on the value of residential properties at a distance equal to or less than 400 meters from the selected rail stations in the range of -18.8% to -11.5%. In contrast, a positive effect is observed for the residential properties located within a radius of 400 to 800 meters from the rail stations, which is estimated to be +15% to +33.2%. The findings also indicate a considerable socio-spatial transformation in the neighborhood composition after the opening of the rail stations in terms of neighborhood population density, land-use density, housing characteristics, and car ownership, which significantly affect the magnitude and direction of the impact.
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      A system of shared autonomous vehicles for Chicago: Understanding the effects of geofencing the service
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2021) Murthy Gurumurthy, Krishna; Auld, Joshua; Kockelman, Kara M.
      With autonomous vehicles (AVs) still in the testing phase, researchers and planners must resort to simulation techniques to explore possible futures regarding shared and automated mobility. An agent-based discrete-event transport simulator, POLARIS, is used in this study to simulate travel in the 20-county Chicago region with a shared AV (SAV) mobility option. Using this framework, the effect of an SAV fleet on system performance when constrained to serve within geofences is studied under four distinct scenarios: service restricted to the city, to the city plus suburban core, to the core plus exurban areas, and to the entire region — along with the choice of dynamic ridesharing (DRS) versus solo travel in an SAV. Results indicate that service areas need a balanced mix of trip generators and attractors, and an SAV fleet’s empty VMT (eVMT) can be noticeably reduced through suitable geofencing and DRS. Geofences can also help lower response times, reduce systemwide VMT across all modes, and ensure uniform access to SAVs. DRS is most useful in lowering VMT and %eVMT that arises from sprawled land development, but with insufficient demand to share rides, savings from the use of geofences is higher. Geofences targeting neighborhoods with high trip density bring about low response times and %eVMT, but fleet sizes in these regions need to be designed for uniformly low response times throughout a large region, as opposed to maximizing vehicle use in a 24-hour day.