JTLU Volume 11, No. 1 (2018)

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Note: Starting in 2017, the Journal of Transport and Land Use will release articles as they are published. They will no longer be published in three separate issues.
  • Table of Contents:
  • Different destination, different commuting pattern? Analyzing the influence of the campus location on commuting, pp. 1-18
  • Oregon's Transportation and Land Use Model Integration Program: A retrospective, pp. 19-30
  • Transport disadvantage, social exclusion, and subjective well-being: The role of the neighborhood environment—evidence from Sydney, Australia, pp. 31-47
  • A multi-dimensional multi-level approach to measuring the spatial structure of U.S. metropolitan areas, pp. 49-65
  • Multi-level urban models: Integration across space, time and policies, pp. 67-81
  • Land-use transport models for climate change mitigation and adaptation planning, pp. 83-101
  • Transportation impacts of affordable housing: Informing development review with travel behavior analysis, pp. 103-118
  • The accessibility assessment and the regional range of transit-oriented development: An application of schedule accessibility measures in the Nord Pas-de-Calais region, pp. 119-141
  • How much is enough? Assessing the influence of neighborhood walkability on undertaking 10-minute walks, pp. 143-151
  • Is bigger better? Metropolitan area population, access, activity participation, and subjective well-being, pp. 153-179
  • Spatial regulation of taxicab services: Measuring empty travel in New York City, pp. 181-194
  • Suburbanization, land use of TOD and lifestyle mobility in the suburbs: An examination of passengers’ choice to live, shop and entertain in the metro station areas of Beijing, pp. 195-215
  • If we build it, who will benefit? A multi-criteria approach for the prioritization of new bicycle lanes in Quebec City, Canada, pp. 217-235
  • Do I walk or ride the rickshaw? Examining the factors affecting first- and last-mile trip options in the historic district of Manila (Philippines), pp. 237-254
  • A multi-scale fine-grained LUTI model to simulate land use scenarios in Luxembourg, pp. 255-272
  • Economic growth and urban metamorphosis: A quarter century of transformations within the metropolitan area of Bucharest, pp. 273-295
  • Transit-oriented development and ports: A national analysis in the United States, pp. 297-304
  • Measuring transit-oriented development (TOD) network complementarity based on TOD node typology, pp. 305-324
  • Exploring links between the sustainability performance of urban public transport and land use in international cities, pp. 325-342
  • Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from transportation and land use: Lessons from West Coast states, pp. 343-366
  • Mobility tools and use: Accessibility’s role in Switzerland, pp. 367-385
  • The effect of light rail transit service on nearby property values: Quasi-experimental evidence from Seattle, pp. 387-404
  • Viewpoint: Integrated urban modeling: Past, present, and future, pp. 387-399
  • Additional detail in aggregate integrated land-use models via simulating developer pro forma thinking, pp. 405-418
  • Home telework, travel behavior, and land-use patterns: A path analysis of British single-worker households, pp. 419-441
  • Are millennials moving to more urbanized and transit-oriented counties?, pp. 443-461
  • Trends in integrated land use/transport modeling: An evaluation of the state of the art, pp. 463-476
  • Changes in travel behavior during the transition from secondary to higher education: A case study from Ghent, Belgium, pp. 477-498
  • Willingness to change car use under a tradable driving credits scheme: A comparison between Beijing and the Netherlands, pp. 499-518
  • Analyzing the temporal location of employment centers relative to residential areas in Cape Town: A spatial metrics approach, pp. 519-540
  • Accounting for uncertainty and variation in accessibility metrics for public transport sketch planning, pp. 541-558
  • Exploring correlates of passenger satisfaction and service improvement priorities of the Shanghai-Nanjing High Speed Rail, pp. 559-573
  • The relationship between commodity types, spatial characteristics, and distance optimality of logistics facilities, pp. 575-591
  • Theoretical substantiation of trip length distribution for home-based work trips in urban transit systems, pp. 593-632
  • An integrated microsimulation approach to land-use and mobility modeling, pp. 633-659
  • Full cost accessibility, pp. 661-679
  • Identifying appropriate land-use mix measures for use in a national walkability index, pp. 681-700
  • Public transport use among the urban and rural elderly in China: Effects of personal, attitudinal, household, social-environment and built-environment factors, pp. 701-719
  • Heterogeneous links between urban form and mobility: A comparison of São Paulo, Istanbul and Mumbai, pp. 721-745
  • Built environment and car driving distance in a small city context, pp. 747-767
  • How density, diversity, land use and neighborhood type influences bus mobility in the Swedish city of Karlstad: Mixing spatial analytic and typo-morphological approaches to assess the indirect effect of urban form on travel, pp. 769-789
  • Inequitable job accessibility across educational and hukou groups in Beijing: An analysis of transit-based accessibility to sectoral jobs, pp. 791-803
  • JTLU special issue editorial: Bicycling in changing urban regions, pp. 805-810
  • On the methodologies and transferability of bicycle research: A perspective from outside academia, pp. 811-814
  • Measuring low-stress connectivity in terms of bike-accessible jobs and potential bike-to-work trips: A case study evaluating alternative bike route alignments in northern Delaware, pp. 815-831
  • Investigating cyclist interaction behavior through a controlled laboratory experiment, pp. 833-847
  • Spatial characteristics of bicycle–motor vehicle crashes in Christchurch, New Zealand: A case-control approach, pp. 849-864
  • Not all crashes are created equal: Associations between the built environment and disparities in bicycle collisions, pp. 865-882
  • Modelling route choice of Dutch cyclists using smartphone data, pp. 883-900
  • Stated choice model of transport modes including solar bike, pp. 901-919
  • Exploring the importance of detailed environment variables in neighborhood commute mode share models, pp. 921-938
  • Residential self-selection in quasi-experimental and natural experimental studies: An extended conceptualization of the relationship between the built environment and travel behavior, pp. 939-959
  • The sustainable transport pathway: A holistic strategy of Five Transformations, pp. 961-980
  • Enhancing and expanding WSTLUR’s leadership and agenda: The urgent need for integrated interdisciplinary research, policy and practice, pp. 981-984
  • The effect of workplace relocation on individuals’ activity travel behavior, pp. 985-1002
  • Rail transit development in lagging regions: A development-oriented investment and financing approach, pp. 1003-1024
  • The case for microsimulation frameworks for integrated urban models, pp. 1025-1037
  • A social equity analysis of the U.S. public transportation system based on job accessibility, pp. 1039-1056
  • Accessibility, urban form, and property value: A study of Pudong, Shanghai, pp. 1057-1080
  • Collaboration in mitigating spatial and skills mismatch: Exploring shared understandings between transit planners and workforce professionals, pp. 1081-1100
  • Estimating bid-auction models of residential location using census data with imputed household income, pp. 1101-1123
  • Intrapersonal day-to-day travel variability and duration of household travel surveys: Moving beyond the one-day convention, pp. 1125-1145
  • The importance of understanding perceptions of accessibility when addressing transport equity: A case study in Greater Nottingham, UK, pp. 1147-1162
  • An analysis of changes to transit accessibility and equity after the opening of a bus rapid transit system in Hartford, Connecticut, pp. 1163-1171
  • Cost of an urban rail ride: A nation-level analysis of ridership, capital costs and cost-effectiveness performance of urban rail transit projects in China, pp. 1173-1191
  • Solutions to cultural, organizational, and technical challenges in developing PECAS models for the cities of Shanghai, Wuhan, and Guangzhou, pp. 1193-1229
  • An agent- and GIS-based virtual city creator: A case study of Beijing, China, pp. 1231-1256
  • High-speed rail as a solution to metropolitan passenger mobility: The case of Shenzhen-Dongguan-Huizhou metropolitan area, pp. 1257-1270
  • Does metro proximity promote happiness? Evidence from Shanghai, pp. 1271-1285
  • Capturing the built environment-travel interaction for strategic planning: Development of a multimodal travel module for the Regional Strategic Planning Model (RSPM), pp. 1287-1308
  • How minimum parking requirements make housing more expensive, pp. 1309-1321
  • Evaluating transit-served areas with non-traditional data: An exploratory study of Shenzhen, China, pp. 1323-1349
  • Search within JTLU Volume 11, No. 1 (2018)


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    • Item
      Stated choice model of transport modes including solar bike
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2018) van den Berg, Pauline; Geurs, Karst; Vinken, Suzette; Arentze, Theo
      In the Netherlands, e-bike ownership and use has rapidly increased over the last decade. A new type of e-bike, the solar bike, has recently been developed. The solar bike is an electric bike with solar panels in the front wheel that charges through sunlight. The aim of this study is to gain more insight in the factors affecting people’s choice between different transport modes, including car, public transport, regular bike, e-bike and solar bike. Based on a stated choice experiment among 308 respondents, a mixed logit error components model for transport mode choice was estimated. The results show that the solar bike is preferred for medium-length trips during daylight and in good weather. Land-use attributes such as good bike lanes, secured bike parking, congested roads and paid parking also have a positive effect on choosing a solar bike over a car. In addition, a latent class model was estimated to segment respondents according to their base preferences for transport modes. Three segments were identified: a segment with a preference for the solar bike, a segment of car lovers and a segment with a preference for public transport and a regular bike. Chi-square and ANOVA tests show that solar bike affinity is related to being female, older, Dutch, and having a positive attitude toward e-bike, solar bike, innovation and the environment.
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      Modelling route choice of Dutch cyclists using smartphone data
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2018) Bernardi, Silvia; La Paix Puello, Lissy; Geurs, Karst
      This paper analyzes the GPS traces recorded by cyclists in the framework of the Mobile Mobility Panel throughout the Netherlands. The objective of this paper is to analyze bicycle route choice via network attributes and trip length over a sequence of trips by approximately 280 bicycle users, who were asked to register their trips by means of a specific smartphone application. Approximately 3,500 bike trips were recorded throughout the Netherlands over a four-week period in 2014. The bike trips have been matched to a specific bicycle network built and updated by a Dutch cyclists’ union. Route choice models were estimated, using both the binomial logit model and the mixed multinomial logit model with Path-size logit model formulation. The chosen alternatives were part of the choice set for the mixed multinomial logit model. Also, the shortest route was generated for each origin-destination pair. The results show that trip lengths and trip distribution over time reveal a population sample much used to cycling, frequently and over long distances. Furthermore, when considering the composition of chosen routes in terms of link type, the usage of cycleway links is frequent. For repeated trips, the shortest route option tends to be chosen more; frequent cyclists, on systematic trips, tend to optimize their trip and prefer the shortest routes. This is even truer for males and for non-leisure trips. The estimated probabilities for both multinomial and binomial models show that the binomial model tends to overestimate the probabilities of choosing the shortest route. This result is stronger in non-leisure trips, where people tend to choose a more personalized route, instead of the shortest. This research contributes to the generation of a more efficient distribution of bicycle trips over the network. Future research can more specifically address the intrapersonal variation in route—destination choice given the availability of longitudinal data.
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      Not all crashes are created equal: Associations between the built environment and disparities in bicycle collisions
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2018) Barajas, Jesus M.
      Historically disadvantaged populations are disproportionately represented in bicycle crashes. Previous research has found that Black and Hispanic bicyclists and areas with higher populations of non-White residents, lower median income, and high poverty experience bicycle crashes more frequently than others. Although existing research has explored the role of socioeconomic status and the built environment in predicting crash frequency, few scholars have studied how these factors account for disparities along racial and ethnic lines. Using a database of 7,088 bicycle crashes over a three-year period in the San Francisco Bay Area, this study examines the influence of socioeconomic, transportation, and land-use characteristics as potential causes of differences in bicycle crash occurrences among racial and ethnic groups in the San Francisco Bay Area. While areas of high poverty and high land-use intensity are associated with higher numbers of bicycle crashes overall, lower-traffic streets and bicycle infrastructure do not affect the frequency of crashes involving Black and Hispanic cyclists. Black bicyclists have a disproportionate risk of being involved in a crash in poor urban neighborhoods, controlling for other factors. These findings draw attention to the need for planners to consider how socioeconomic differences and vulnerability at the neighborhood level play a role in safety.
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      Spatial characteristics of bicycle–motor vehicle crashes in Christchurch, New Zealand: A case-control approach
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2018) Williams, Tom; Doscher, Crile; Page, Shannon
      This paper aims to examine the risk of bicycle-motor vehicle crashes occurring on a network-wide level in Christchurch, New Zealand, based on the spatial characteristics present in the road environment. To achieve this, logistic regression was undertaken with a binary dependent variable (crash/non-crash) using a case-control strategy, with case sites being locations of reported crashes, while control sites were sampled from the road network in proportion to where people cycle. Due to the uncertainty of cycling flows in Christchurch, four logistic regression models were undertaken based on different route selection preferences. The results identified that the odds of a crash increased across all four models due to the presence of driveways or intersections, identifying that these characteristics are associated with an increase in crash risk. All of the models identified that the risk of a crash decreases with the presence of on-road cycle lanes, while crash risk due to the presence of specific planning zones or road classification varied across all of the models.
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      Investigating cyclist interaction behavior through a controlled laboratory experiment
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2018) Yuan, Yufei; Daamen, Winnie; Goñi-Ros, Bernat; Hoogendoorn, Serge P.
      Nowadays, there is a need for tools to support city planners in assessing the performance of cycling infrastructure and managing bicycles and mixed flows. Microscopic and macroscopic bicycle traffic models can be used to fulfill this need. However, fundamental knowledge on individual cyclist interaction behavior (which should underpin these models) is hardly available in literature. Detailed bicycle traffic data are necessary if we want to gain insight into cyclist interaction behavior and develop sound behavioral theories and models. Laboratory experiments have been proven to be one of the most effective ways to collect detailed traffic data. For this reason, a controlled experiment aimed to investigate cyclist interaction behavior has been carried out at Delft University of Technology. This paper describes the experimental design, the resulting microscopic bicycle trajectories, and some preliminary results regarding one of the most common interaction situations: the bidirectional interaction. The preliminary results reveal how and to what extent cyclists interact in bidirectional cycling. It is found that cyclists perform a clearly-visible evading (collision avoidance) maneuver when they have face-to-face encounters. During these maneuvers, changes in speed and displacements in the lateral direction are observed. Cyclists start to deviate from their original path when they are around 30 m from each other, and they strongly prefer passing on the right-hand side. Moreover, the expectation of gender differences in cycling behavior reported in the literature is confirmed: our results show that women generally cycle more slowly than men and deviate more from their intended paths in face-to-face encounters. More observations will be available in the next stage of data analysis. These findings can be used to formulate improved microscopic bicycle traffic models for infrastructure design and policy development.
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      Measuring low-stress connectivity in terms of bike-accessible jobs and potential bike-to-work trips: A case study evaluating alternative bike route alignments in northern Delaware
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2018) Furth, Peter G.; Putta, Theja V. V. K.; Moser, Paul
      When road segments with high traffic stress are excluded, the remaining network of low-stress roads and trails can be fragmented, lacking connections between many origin-destination pairs or requiring onerous detour. Low-stress connectivity is a measure of the degree to which origins (for this study, homes) and destinations (jobs) can be connected using only low-stress links and without excessive detour. Revision 2.0 to Level of Traffic Stress criteria is introduced and applied to the road and trail network of northern Delaware. A propensity model is proposed to reflect people’s declining willingness to ride a bike with greater trip length and detour, accounting for the impact to health and other benefits of cycling. New connectivity measures are introduced that can be interpreted as the number of bike-accessible jobs and the potential number of bike-to-work trips, powerful measures for evaluating alternatives. These connectivity measures are applied in a case study evaluating alternative alignments for a bike route between Wilmington and Newark, Delaware’s two largest cities, separated by a distance of about 20 km through a largely suburban landscape. The case study explores the benefits of enhancing alternatives with branches that help connect to population and employment centers. We also find that the connectivity gain from constructing multiple alignments is greater than the sum of connectivity gains from individual alignments, indicating that complementarity between the alternatives, which are spaced roughly 5 km apart, overshadows any competition between them.
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      On the methodologies and transferability of bicycle research: A perspective from outside academia
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2018) Walta, Leonie
      Driven by an increasing concern about urban liveability, climate change, and healthy life styles, amongst others, researchers are aiming to better understand why people bicycle and what could induce them to cycle more. Given the importance of local conditions and culture, there is not just one general answer to those questions. Furthermore, there is an ongoing debate on which methodological approach delivers the most meaningful results. This commentary outlines the current position of bicycle research on the question of why people bicycle and proposes ways of moving forward.
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      JTLU special issue editorial: Bicycling in changing urban regions
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2018) Krizek, Kevin J.; Sharmeen, Fariya; Martens, Karel
      As communities around the globe contemplate the future of their transport portfolio, bicycling's role has increasingly cropped up as a key discussion point. Up until a few years ago, bicycling's value was largely fueled by a loyal advocacy base. Its potential was littered with unsupported claims and bicycling struggled to obtain legitimate status, even as, or precisely because of its status as a "fringe mode." This context has recently changed. Concomitant with—or perhaps prompted by—a rise in (public and policy attention for) bicycling, there has been a rise in research specifically on bicycling. In just a few years, bicycling's stock has risen to be a mode that is commanding attention in cities of all sizes. Furthermore, its role and value are informed by a burgeoning evidence base, increasingly in the form of peer-reviewed work. This evidence base allows, among other things, a more reflective appreciation for bicycling's position in transport systems and for bicycling to be better understood in different geographical contexts.
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      Evaluating transit-served areas with non-traditional data: An exploratory study of Shenzhen, China
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2018) Zhou, Jiangping; Wang, Qihao; Liu, Haitao
      In this study, transit-served areas (TSAs) are defined as areas within a reasonable distance (e.g., 800 meters) of transit services. TSAs have two key dimensions: physical features (e.g., land-use density and mix) and performance (regarding human behaviors). Non-traditional data (NTD) (e.g., social media check-ins and cellular network data) can supplement traditional data (TD) (e.g., interviews and censuses) to enhance studies and monitoring of TSAs. A case study of Shenzhen, China, illustrates how to combine NTD and TD to evaluate the features and performance of 167 TSAs along metro lines. It finds that NTD can be used to formulate new indicators to measure and monitor the two dimensions of TSAs; the features and performance of different TSAs vary significantly; point of interest (POI) efficiency, or the average users attracted by each POI, can be a useful indicator to differentiate TSAs’ performance; the POI efficiency of a single TSA can vary across days and the POI efficiency of an extremely efficient or inefficient TSA can be totally different across days; and the combination of NTD and TD can effectively help locate extreme TSAs and explain factors contributing to the extremity.
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      How minimum parking requirements make housing more expensive
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2018) Lehe, Lewis
      A growing consensus argues that minimum parking requirements (MPRs) make housing more expensive. This paper examines two claims from this discussion: (1) that MPRs discourage the construction of small units; (2) that the costs of building required parking are "passed on" to buyers and renters in the form of higher prices and rents. However, the mechanisms behind these two effects have never been made explicit in the literature. This paper proposes, for each claim, a plausible mechanism relying on the specific choices of housing suppliers and consumers. We propose that MPRs discourage small units because they eliminate the most profitable floorspace/parking bundle to supply to relatively lower-income households. We propose that parking costs may be passed on by reducing the supply of housing on offer at a given price.
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      Capturing the built environment-travel interaction for strategic planning: Development of a multimodal travel module for the Regional Strategic Planning Model (RSPM)
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2018) Wang, Liming; Gregor, Brian; Yang, Huajie; Weidner, Tara; Knudson, Anthony
      Integrated land use and transportation models have evolved along a spectrum from simple sketch planning models to complex microsimulation models. While each has its niche, they are largely unable to balance the flexibility and realism of microsimulation and the speed and interactivity of simple models. The Regional Strategic Planning Model (RSPM) aims to fill this gap by taking a microsimulation approach while making other simplifications in order to model first-order effects quickly. It enables planners to consider the robustness of prospective policies in the face of future uncertainties by accepting a broad range of inputs and allowing rapid simulations of many scenarios. This paper introduces the RSPM and shows how new land use and multimodal transportation sensitivities have been incorporated through the conversion to the new VisionEval open-source framework. Land use and transportation interactions in the RSPM are reviewed, and the development of a new multimodal travel demand module with improved land use sensitivities is highlighted. The use of a unique nationwide dataset combining the 2009 NHTS, EPA’s Smart Location Database, and metropolitan transit and roadway data is explained. The paper concludes with the results of validation and sensitivity tests, and a discussion of future work.
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      Does metro proximity promote happiness? Evidence from Shanghai
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2018) Li, Wan; Sun, Bindong; Yin, Chun; Zhang, Tinglin; Liu, Qianqian
      Although an increasing number of scholars are evaluating rail transit benefits, there have been surprisingly few studies of the links between metro proximity and happiness. The principal objective of this paper is to assess the benefits of metro proximity for individual’s happiness. A key challenge to empirically answering this question is the fact that residential location is likely to be the result of self-selection, i.e., personal preference, such that living around a rail station can increase residents’ happiness. Taking advantage of the largely exogenous residential locations of those who bought their house 10 years earlier than the operation of their nearest metro station and those households living in non-market housing in Shanghai, we find proximity to a subway station robustly promotes happiness at the individual level. These results suggest that the development of rail transit and transit-oriented development (TOD) are promising ways to increase happiness.
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      High-speed rail as a solution to metropolitan passenger mobility: The case of Shenzhen-Dongguan-Huizhou metropolitan area
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2018) Lin, Xiongbin; Yang, Jiawen; MacLachlan, Ian
      High-speed rail (HSR) has played an important role in China’s long-distance travel. However, the potential of this transport technology to meet the demand of passenger mobility at the metropolitan scale is still unclear. This research examines this potential by studying transportation investment for intercity passenger mobility in the Shenzhen-Dongguan-Huizhou Metropolitan Area, where multiple fixed guideway transit systems have been proposed and HSR service has been implemented to carry passengers between central Shenzhen and outer portions of this metropolitan region. Comparison of alternative modes explains why HSR is competitive at the metropolitan scale. Interviews with relevant stakeholders reveal the institutional conditions for utilizing the national HSR system for regional passenger mobility.
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      An agent- and GIS-based virtual city creator: A case study of Beijing, China
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2018) Zhuge, Chengxiang; Shao, Chunfu; Wang, Shuling; Hu, Ying
      Many agent-based integrated urban models have been developed to investigate urban issues, considering the dynamics and feedbacks in complex urban systems. The lack of disaggregate data, however, has become one of the main barriers to the application of these models, though a number of data synthesis methods have been applied. To generate a complete dataset that contains full disaggregate input data for model initialization, this paper develops a virtual city creator as a key component of an agent-based land-use and transport model, SelfSim. The creator is a set of disaggregate data synthesis methods, including a genetic algorithm (GA)-based population synthesizer, a transport facility synthesizer, an activity facility synthesizer and a daily plan generator, which use the household travel survey data as the main input. Finally, the capital of China, Beijing, was used as a case study. The creator was applied to generate an agent- and Geographic Information System (GIS)-based virtual Beijing containing individuals, households, transport and activity facilities, as well as their attributes and linkages.
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      Solutions to cultural, organizational, and technical challenges in developing PECAS models for the cities of Shanghai, Wuhan, and Guangzhou
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2018) Zhong, Ming; Wang, Wanle; Hunt, John D.; Pan, P. Haixiao; Chen, Tao; Li, Jianzhong; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Ke
      Massive construction of transportation infrastructure and fast growth of private car ownership have brought unprecedented changes in land use and transportation systems to cities and regions in many developing countries. Traditional “four-step” travel demand models, which are not designed to assess transport policies under the case of rapid land-use change, cannot be used to achieve coordinated planning of transport and land use. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop and use integrated land-use transport models (ILUTMs), which consider interactions among socioeconomic activities, urban land use, and transportation development, for policy analysis and for guiding the progressive urbanization process taking place in many parts of these countries. In light of this, efforts have been invested in developing production, exchange, and consumption allocation system (PECAS) models for the cities of Shanghai, Wuhan, and Guangzhou in mainland China. This paper presents the cultural, organizational, and technical challenges encountered in the development of PECAS models for the cities of Shanghai, Wuhan, and Guangzhou and the mitigating solutions from the development teams for taking up or working around them. The solutions and discussions presented in this paper should be interesting to researchers and practitioners for developing ILUTMs in the context of a developing country like China.
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      Cost of an urban rail ride: A nation-level analysis of ridership, capital costs and cost-effectiveness performance of urban rail transit projects in China
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2018) Zhao, Jinbao; Li, Chaosu; Zhang, Ruhua; Palmer, Mathew
      Although urban rail transit (URT) is an attractive alternative mode of daily travel, barriers exist in URT development across the world, in particular, the high cost of construction and operation and relative low rates of URT ridership. Despite these barriers, URT has gained considerable popularity worldwide in recent years; much of this trend is driven by projects in China. Despite this public support and implementation of URT projects, the ridership, capital costs and cost-effectiveness of URT projects remain largely unstudied. This paper addresses this planning and policy issue by examining line-level ridership and investment data for 97 heavy rail transit (HRT) lines and 12 light rail transit (LRT) lines in 28 Chinese cities. Comparative analysis is conducted so as to evaluate the performance and cost-effectiveness of HRT and LRT. Multiple linear regression analysis is used to explain the variability of URT cost-effectiveness and how it varies depending on land use density, project design, system service, and multimodal transit integration. Findings indicate that land-use density, line length, number of transfer stations, operation time, and bus ridership significantly contribute to higher levels of URT ridership, while URT ridership decreases significantly with train headway and the station’s distance from the city center. It is cost-effective to develop URT in high-density cities in spite of high costs, and some, if not all, LRT lines are more cost-effective than HRT lines. As of this analysis, the overdevelopment of HRT in China has failed to plan for multimodal transport integration and operational optimization. However, these shortcomings are also opportunities for Chinese transportation and land-use planners to develop more cost-effective URT projects that also improve the level of service available to the public.
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      An analysis of changes to transit accessibility and equity after the opening of a bus rapid transit system in Hartford, Connecticut
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2018) Bertolaccini, Kelly
      In March 2015, CTfastrak, a bus rapid transit system operating in Connecticut in the United States, opened after nearly 16 years of planning and controversy. The 15.1-km (9.4-mi) busway connects the town of New Britain to the state capital of Hartford. The analysis conducted in this paper investigates whether or not CTfastrak and the transit system restructuring that occurred between 2013 and 2016 improved overall transit accessibility in the region, and if so, whether or not the distribution of these improvements is equitable. This exploration provides strong evidence that overall transit accessibility has improved in the region. Horizontal, or spatial equity, did worsen slightly as a result of this highly localized project. However, vulnerable populations experience more improvements and fewer decreases in transit accessibility than the general population. Though these analyses seem promising, an analysis of the distribution of transit access among workers hints that while many people are experiencing increases in general accessibility, they may not have meaningful access to their place of employment.
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      The importance of understanding perceptions of accessibility when addressing transport equity: A case study in Greater Nottingham, UK
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2018) Curl, Angela
      To deal with issues of equity in transport, increasing attention is being paid to addressing inequalities in accessibility. Existing approaches to measuring accessibility tend to focus on objective measurement, often using journey time as an indicator of spatial separation of people from places. However, using objective measures of spatial accessibility could obscure inequities in accessibility that occur due to differences in perceptions of accessibility among (groups of) individuals. This paper uses data from a case study in Greater Nottingham, UK, to demonstrate that there are differences between self-reported and objective measures of journey time access to destinations. Self-reported journey times to a number of destinations by walking, public transport, and car are compared with a nationally available dataset of accessibility indicators. Then, factors associated with self-reported journey times are investigated to understand what accounts for differences between individual’s self-reported understanding and objective measures of journey time accessibility. Results show that there is a difference between self-reported and objective measures, and that objective measures usually underestimate journey time accessibility. These differences occur because of demographic factors (e.g., age), trip familiarity, and destination definition. If accessibility metrics are to be used to address issues of social inequity related to transport, then there is a need to consider how diverse perceptions of accessibility relate to objective measures and to develop approaches that can account for social as well as spatial variation in accessibility.
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      Intrapersonal day-to-day travel variability and duration of household travel surveys: Moving beyond the one-day convention
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2018) Li, Wei; Houston, Douglas; Boarnet, Marlon G.; Park, Han
      By analyzing seven-day travel logs from Los Angeles during 2011–2013, we contribute to the understanding of intrapersonal day-to-day travel variability (IDTV) in relation to socio-demographic and land-use characteristics and the implication of travel survey duration for travel parameter estimates. Our main sample included 2,395 person-days from 352 individual participants in 219 households. Our analytical methods included linear regressions and random sampling experiments. Our Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS) regression models revealed that many factors significantly influenced IDTV, such as gender, age, income, and household type. However, the observed socio-demographic and land-use characteristics could only explain a small portion of IDTV. The random sampling experiments enabled us to contrast travel variables measured from the seven-day master sample with those from subsamples of a shorter period (one to six days). The “optimal” duration for a travel survey may depend on the specific travel variables measured, and we provide evidence that studies of transit and non-motorized travel will require longer surveys than studies of car travel. In conclusion, the conventional one-day approach is likely to produce imprecise parameter estimates due to the intrapersonal day-to-day travel variability. We recommend that transportation professionals and policy makers consider shifting from the conventional one-day approach toward a multi-day approach. Surveys that focus on the modes of walking, biking, and transit should consider data collection for at least seven days.
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      Estimating bid-auction models of residential location using census data with imputed household income
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2018) Heldt, Benjamin; Donoso, Pedro; Bahamonde-Birke, Francisco; Heinrichs, Dirk
      Modeling residential location as a key component of the land-use system is essential to understand the relationship between land use and transport. The increasing availability of censuses such as the German Zensus 2011 has enabled residential location to be modeled with a large number of observations, presenting both opportunities and challenges. Censuses are statistically highly representative; however, they often lack variables such as income or mobility-related attributes as in the case of Zensus 2011. This is particularly problematic if missing variables define utility or willingness-to-pay functions that characterize choice options in a location model. One example for this is household income, which is an indispensable variable in land use models because it influences household location preferences and defines affordable location options. For estimating bid-auction location models for different income groups, we impute household income in census data applying an ordered regression model. We find that location models considering this imputation perform sufficiently well as they reveal reasonable and expected aspects of the location patterns. In general, imputing choice variables should thus be considered in the estimation of residential location models but is also promising for other decision problems. Comparing results for two imputation methods, we also show that while applying the deterministic first preference imputation may yield misleading results the probabilistic Monte Carlo simulation is the correct imputation approach.