JTLU Volume 12, No. 1 (2019)

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Note: Starting in 2017, the Journal of Transport and Land Use will release articles as they are published. They will no longer be published in three separate issues.
  • Table of Contents:
  • Transferring land use rights with transportation infrastructure extensions: Evidence on spatiotemporal price formation in Shanghai, pp. 1-19
  • A Markovian measure for evaluating accessibility to urban opportunities, pp. 19-43
  • Understanding autonomous vehicles: A systematic literature review on capability, impact, planning and policy, pp. 45-72
  • The influence of education level and job type on work-related travel patterns within rural metro-adjacent regions: The case of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain, pp. 73-98
  • Heterogeneity in the relationship between biking and the built environment, pp. 99-126
  • The impact of ride hailing on parking (and vice versa), pp. 127-147
  • Beyond geometries of activity spaces: A holistic study of daily travel patterns, individual characteristics, and perceived wellbeing in Helsinki metropolitan area, pp. 149-177
  • Effects of toll road construction on local road projects in Indonesia, pp. 179-199
  • Analysis of trip generation rates in residential commuting based on mobile phone signaling data, pp. 201-220
  • A bikeshare station area typology to forecast the station-level ridership of system expansion, pp. 221-235
  • Introduction to special issue: Rail transit development in China and beyond, pp. 237-239
  • The impacts of light rail on residential property values in a non-zoning city: A new test on the Houston METRORail transit line, pp. 241-264
  • Impact of high-speed rail on intercity travel behavior change: The evidence from the Chengdu-Chongqing Passenger Dedicated Line, pp. 265-285
  • Estimating the economic benefits of high-speed rail in China: A new perspective from the connectivity improvement, pp. 287-302
  • Examining the effects of proximity to rail transit on travel to non-work destinations: Evidence from Yelp data for cities in North America and Europe, pp. 303-326
  • Integrated modeling in the UK: Practical usability of integrated models, pp. 327-334
  • Willingness to change car use to commute to the UPTC main campus, Colombia: A hybrid discrete choice modeling approach, pp. 335-353
  • Advancing cycling among women: An exploratory study of North American cyclists, pp. 355-374
  • Identifying residential and workplace locations from transit smart card data, pp. 375-394
  • Life events, poverty, and car ownership in the United States: A mobility biography approach, pp. 395-418
  • Understanding the effects of individual attitudes, perceptions, and residential neighborhood types on university commuters’ bicycling decisions, pp. 419-441
  • Building a PECAS Activity Allocation Module: The experience from Caracas, pp. 443-474
  • On the accuracy of schedule-based GTFS for measuring accessibility, pp. 475-500
  • Gendered walkability: Building a daytime walkability index for women, pp. 501-526
  • Modelling residential location choices with implicit availability of alternatives, pp. 597-618
  • Complete streets state laws & provisions: An analysis of legislative content and the state policy landscape, 1972–2018, pp. 619-635
  • Analysis of the acceptance of park-and-ride by users: A cumulative logistic regression approach, pp. 637-647
  • Measuring full cost accessibility by auto, pp. 649-672
  • Re-examination of the standards for transit oriented development influence zones in India, pp. 679-700
  • Mode choice in access and egress stages of high-speed railway travelers in China, pp. 701-721
  • Using location-based social network data for activity intensity analysis: A case study of New York City, pp. 723-740
  • Distributional effects of transport policies on inequalities in access to opportunities in Rio de Janeiro, pp. 741-764
  • Mobility nodes and economic spaces: Links, tensions and planning implications, pp. 765-783
  • Workplace location, polycentricism, and car commuting, pp. 785-810
  • Planning for nodes, places, and people in Flanders and Brussels: An empirical railway station assessment tool for strategic decision-making, pp. 811-837
  • Examining interaction effects among land-use policies to reduce household vehicle travel: An exploratory analysis, pp. 839-851
  • Combining accessibilities for different activity types: Methodology and case study, pp. 853-872
  • A joint model of place of residence (POR) and place of work (POW): Making use of Gibbs sampling technique to overcome arbitrary assumptions in contexts of data limitation, pp. 873-892
  • Temporal sampling and service frequency harmonics in transit accessibility evaluation, pp. 893-913
  • Search within JTLU Volume 12, No. 1 (2019)

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      Building a PECAS Activity Allocation Module: The experience from Caracas
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2019) Fuenmayor, Geraldine; Abraham, John E.; Hunt, John Douglas
      We applied the PECAS Framework, a spatial economic system for forecasting and policy analysis, to the region of Caracas, Venezuela. In this paper, we describe in 12 steps the elements developed for an Activity Allocation model in this region. A detailed inventory of built space and household characteristics was developed using a population synthesis technique. The model design and implementation reflected informal (slum) housing and social equity (with 20 residential space types), while accounting for the industrial mix of the region. Transport costs for economic interactions were calculated using a TRANUS travel demand model. We also describe the calibration of the model and the application to two policy scenarios: provision of public housing and increasing transit fares. The 12 steps can guide future researchers, specifically listing the data and processes that were applied in this context. The sensitivity tests showed how this type of model can be used to anticipate social equity effects due to policy. Based on the know-how gained, we provide valuable insights for other modelling teams, particularly for applications in developing economies.
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      Integrated modeling in the UK: Practical usability of integrated models
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2019) Simmonds, David
      This short paper reviews the range of planning issues that are currently being addressed in Britain and considers how the nature of these issues and the ways in which choices are being assessed impact the modeling approaches being adopted, in particular, by the author’s own consultancy practice. The paper briefly outlines current developments in governance and analytical requirements; implications of trends toward more detailed (and more time-consuming) transport modeling; and the role of microsimulation in both research and planning practice. It concludes primarily that the practicality of model operation, particularly in terms of model run times, is of critical importance, and in many cases, determines whether major planning decisions are made on the basis of formal analysis rooted, albeit indirectly, in research, or without such a basis at all. A secondary conclusion relates to the possible use of output from detailed microsimulation models as a basis for calibrating aggregate models.
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      Re-examination of the standards for transit oriented development influence zones in India
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2019) Ann, Sangeetha; Jiang, Meilan; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki
      Transit oriented development (TOD) is a land-use and transport integrated urban planning strategy that is highly acclaimed for promoting sustainable city development. This review aims to identify the problems regarding adoption of TOD standards or guidelines formulated by developed countries in developing countries, such as India, and the necessity of conducting adaptability studies on TOD influence areas. The existing studies show that the size of the influence area varies among different cities and travel modes. Accordingly, no single size influence zone is suitable for all cases. This review highlights the necessity of carefully considering the spatial extent of influence areas and modes other than walking as access or egress modes in the Indian context. Moreover, this review aims to provide insight on how to plan TOD in the context of developing countries, because the mobility patterns in these countries differ considerably from those in the developed world.
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      Temporal sampling and service frequency harmonics in transit accessibility evaluation
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2019) Murphy, Brendan; Owen, Andrew
      In the context of public transit networks, repeated calculation of accessibility at multiple departure times provides a more robust representation of local accessibility. However, these calculations can require significant amounts of time and/or computing power. One way to reduce these requirements is to calculate accessibility only for a sample of time points over a time window of interest, rather than every one. To date, many accessibility evaluation projects have employed temporal sampling strategies, but the effects of different strategies have not been investigated and their performance has not been compared. Using detailed block-level accessibility calculated at 1-minute intervals as a reference dataset, four different temporal sampling strategies are evaluated using aggregate sample error metrics as well as indicators of spatially clustered error. Systematic sampling at a regular interval performs well on average but is susceptible to spatially-clustered harmonic error effects which may bias aggregate accessibility results. A constrained random walk sampling strategy provides slightly worse average sample error, but eliminates the risk of harmonic error effects.
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      A joint model of place of residence (POR) and place of work (POW): Making use of Gibbs sampling technique to overcome arbitrary assumptions in contexts of data limitation
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2019) Zhang, Hengyang; Hawkins, Jason; Nurul Habib, Khandker
      Place of residence (POR) and place of work (POW) are two spatial pivots defining patterns of travel behavior. These choices are considered part of long-term choice influencing short-term daily travel choices. Hence, POR-POW distributions are input into almost all daily travel demand models. However, in many cases, POW-POR is modelled in an ad-hoc way considering the gravity-based or entropy is maximizing aggregate modelling approach. Lack of data on the sequence of choices related to POR and POW is often blamed for avoiding using disaggregate choice model. Recognizing such data limitation, this paper presents an alternative methodology of modelling joint distribution of POW-POW that uses disaggregate choice models without necessarily knowing the sequence of POR and POW choices. It uses the conditional probability break downs of joint POR-POW choice probabilities as depicted in the Gibbs sampling approach. This allows capturing effects of household socioeconomic characteristics, zonal land-use characteristics, and modal accessibility factors in the POR-POW models. The model is applied for a case study in the city of Ottawa. Results reveal that the proposed methodology can replicate observed patterns of POR-POW with a high degree of accuracy.
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      Combining accessibilities for different activity types: Methodology and case study
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2019) Zheng, Lijuan; Oeser, Markus; van Wee, Bert
      Accessibility is a key concept in transport planning. Most studies only focus on specific activity types, but for policy making it is more relevant to aggregate accessibility overall or at least several activity types. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no study that combines accessibilities for different activity types. Since access to spatially separated activities is one dimension of quality of life, and activity types are not equally important for quality of life, we propose a methodology that is based on weighing activity types according to their relative importance to quality of life to assess overall accessibility. Four principles are adopted to develop the weighting factors: 1) the human needs the activity types satisfy; 2) the activity types' contribution to quality of life; 3) the activity types' trip frequency; 4) further modifications, based on principles such as whether the activity types are needed in emergent situations, and social values and policy preferences. We combine these four principles and apply the methodology in a case study focused on Germany.
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      Planning for nodes, places, and people in Flanders and Brussels: An empirical railway station assessment tool for strategic decision-making
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2019) Caset, Freke; Marques Teixeira, Filipe; Derudder, Ben; Boussauw, Kobe; Witlox, Frank
      Against the backdrop of current policy discussions in Flanders dealing with differentiated urban development schemes for strategic railway stations, this paper develops an empirical railway station assessment tool. We build on the node-place modeling literature, and more specifically on the tradition of quantitative station assessment models which has emerged from it. First, a series of methodological contributions are proposed in which we suggest strategies to improve the analytical strength of some standard node-place parameters, we broaden the model with temporal variability in accessibility, and we complement the model with a user-based accessibility account. Second, the conceptual model is applied to the case of Flanders and Brussels (the north of Belgium). Drawing on factor and cluster analysis, two intelligible station typologies are produced for both node-place and user-based data. Both typologies are interpreted and complemented with station-specific rose diagrams summarizing a station’s accessibility profile. These diagrams reveal insightful and detailed knowledge about station-specific accessibility characteristics, some of which are not captured by standard node-place analyses. Lastly, a more in-depth discussion focusing on five exemplary cases reveals what the results of these analyses may mean for planning practice.
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      Examining interaction effects among land-use policies to reduce household vehicle travel: An exploratory analysis
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2019) Choi, Kwangyul; Paterson, Robert
      Numerous studies have suggested that land-use policies can reduce vehicle travel through mode shifting and reduced trip lengths and generation of fewer or more efficient trips. The findings from previous studies also suggest that the combined effect of two or more land-use policies can be significant, although the effects of individual policies appear to be modest. These studies present area-wide impacts of land-use policies on travel and suggest that their effects are additive. However, very little is known about how each land-use policy interacts with the others at different levels of development intensity to reduce vehicle travel. In this study, we explore how three well-known land-use strategies (densification, mixed-use development, and street network improvement) interact with each other by testing possible combinations of land-use factors and focus on how these interactive effects vary by the level of development intensity. Employing ordinary least squares regression analysis using a dataset created for the Austin metropolitan statistical area (MSA) (using 2006 Austin Travel Survey data), we examine the impact of land use on household vehicle travel. Our findings suggest that interaction effects occur, but they vary by development intensity. The results of this study show the importance of considering both threshold (development intensity) and interaction (combination of policies) effects in understanding how land-use factors do and do not affect travel (based on their interactive opposed to only their direct and additive effects). Though this paper uses data from just one MSA and thus is merely suggestive, it does point to a possibly more nuanced use of the commonly prescribed planning and design policy variable to account for variation in effectiveness based on differences in development intensity. For example, we find that greater land-use intensification has higher efficacy in changing vehicle travel behavior in areas with relatively higher development intensity. Future research should include data from a broader array of metropolitan areas and incorporate additional predictor variables that were unavailable for this analysis.
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      Workplace location, polycentricism, and car commuting
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2019) Wolday, Fitwi; Tønnesen, Anders; Næss, Petter
      Although significant strides have been made regarding the relationship between urban structure and travel, some doubt appears to be lingering concerning the impacts of polycentric urban development. For example, the debate on whether a polycentric or monocentric workplace location pattern is favorable for reducing negative environmental effects from transportation has not been entirely settled. This study intends to contribute to clearing up some of the misconceptions by focusing on the implications of spatial distribution of jobs on commuting patterns among employees within the Oslo metropolitan area. Results show a strong tendency for a higher share of car commuting among employees working in suburban workplaces. This pattern persists also for suburban workplaces located close to suburban transit nodes. The share of transit commuters shows the opposite pattern. Commuting distances also tend to increase the farther from the city center the workplace is located. These conclusions are based on cross-sectional and quasi-longitudinal survey data as well as semi-structured in-depth interviews of workers, including several interviewees who had changed their workplace locations. To our knowledge, this is the first mixed-methods study on the influence of workplace location on commuting behavior. The results raise doubt about the appropriateness of polycentric intra-metropolitan workplace development as a strategy for sustainable mobility.
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      Mobility nodes and economic spaces: Links, tensions and planning implications
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2019) Recio, Redento B.; Mateo-Babiano, Iderlina; Roitman, Sonia
      While transport hubs function largely as mobility interchanges, they also serve as spaces of conflict and negotiation, particularly when informal livelihoods of poor populations take place in public spaces like streets and transport terminals. This condition poses challenges to urban planners and transport officials on how to promote inclusive cities without sacrificing urban mobility. We examine how informal trading has become embedded in the land-use patterns of Baclaran, a strategic transport hub in Metro Manila. Three factors emerge as critical in understanding how and why informal trading thrives in Baclaran: a) the presence of commuters as captive market; b) mixed land use and activity agglomeration; and c) multi-layered socio-spatial relations. Our empirical data also shows how normalized informal trading in a mobility node has triggered transport route diversion and supported the growth of small-scale informal transport.
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      Distributional effects of transport policies on inequalities in access to opportunities in Rio de Janeiro
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2019) Pereira, Rafael H. M.; Schwanen, Tim; Banister, David; Wessel, Nate
      The evaluation of social impacts of transport policies has been attracting growing attention in recent years. Yet studies thus far have predominately focused on developed countries and overlooked whether equity assessment of transport projects is sensitive to the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP). This paper investigates how investments in public transport can reshape socio-spatial inequalities in access to opportunities, and it examines how MAUP can influence the distributional effects of transport project evaluations. The study looks at Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and the transformations carried out in the city in preparation for the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympics, which involved substantial expansion in public transport infrastructure followed by cuts in service levels. The paper uses before-and-after comparison of Rio's transport network (2014-2017) and quasi-counterfactual analysis to examine how those policies affect access to schools and jobs for different income groups and whether the results are robust when the data is analyzed at different spatial scales and zoning schemes. Results show that subsequent cuts in service levels have offset the accessibility benefits of transport investments in a way that particularly penalizes the poor, and that those investments alone would still have generated larger accessibility gains for higher-income groups. These findings suggest that, contrary to Brazil’s official discourse of transport legacy, recent policies in Rio have exacerbated rather than reduced socio-spatial inequalities in access to opportunities. The study also shows that MAUP can influence the equity assessment of transport projects, suggesting that this issue should be addressed in future research.
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      Using location-based social network data for activity intensity analysis: A case study of New York City
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2019) Laman, Haluk; Yasmin, Shamsunnahar; Eluru, Naveen
      Location-based social networks (LBSN) are social media sites where users check-in at venues and share content linked to their geo-locations. LBSN, considered to be a novel data source, contain valuable information for urban planners and researchers. While earlier research efforts focused either on disaggregate patterns or aggregate analysis of social and temporal attributes, no attempt has been made to relate the data to transportation planning outcomes. To that extent, the current study employs LBSN service-based data for an aggregate-level transportation planning exercise by developing land-use planning models. Specifically, we employ check-in data aggregated at the census tract level to develop a quantitative model for activity intensity as a function of land use and built-environment attributes for the New York City (NYC) region. A statistical exercise based on clustering of census tracts and negative binomial regression analyses are adopted to analyze the aggregated data. We demonstrate the implications of the estimated models by presenting the spatial aggregation profiling based on the model estimates. The findings provide insights on relative differences of activity engagements across the urban region. The proposed approach thus provides a complementary analysis tool to traditional transportation planning exercises.
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      Mode choice in access and egress stages of high-speed railway travelers in China
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2019) Yang, Haoran; Dijst, Martin; Feng, Jianxi; Ettema, Dick
      High-speed railway (HSR) has become a sustainable transport mode for inter-city travel, especially in China. As public transport (PT), the use of HSR involves access and egress to and from HSR stations. However, the literature focusing on the intra-city mode choice of HSR travelers is limited, especially regarding their differential socio-demographic and trip characteristics. This paper aims to fill that gap with an analysis of access/egress mode choice for business and leisure journeys in the Yangzi River Delta region. Using the HSR survey from Fudan University, we found that in China older and wealthier travelers have a strong preference for car use. For leisure travel, the explanatory power of the socio-demographic variables is much more influential in the egress than the access stage. With increasing access time, business travelers may be enticed to shift to a faster form of PT (e.g., subway rather than bus) in the access stage. With increasing line-haul time, only business travelers have a stronger preference for car use as their intra-city mode choice for business activities. A higher number of subway lines and diversity of land use around HSR stations is associated with less car use for business travelers in the egress stage.
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      Measuring full cost accessibility by auto
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2019) Cui, Mengying; Levinson, David
      Traditionally accessibility has been analyzed from the perspective of the mean or expected travel time, which fails to capture the full cost, especially the external cost, of travel. The full cost accessibility (FCA) framework, proposed by Cui and Levinson (2018), provides a theoretical basis to fill the gap. It combines temporal, monetary, and non-monetary internal and external travel costs into accessibility evaluations, considering the time cost, crash cost, emission cost, and monetary cost. This paper extends the FCA framework and measures the full cost accessibility by auto for the Minneapolis - St. Paul Metropolitan area, demonstrating the practicality of the FCA framework on real networks.
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      Analysis of the acceptance of park-and-ride by users: A cumulative logistic regression approach
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2019) Huang, Kai; Liu, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Ting; Kim, Inhi; An, Kun
      Park-and-ride (P&R) schemes are an important way of increasing the public transport mode share, which relieves the negative impact caused by excessive automobile usage. Several existing studies have been conducted in the past to explore the factors that can influence the acceptance of P&R by travelers. However, quantitative analyses of the pertinent factors and rates of traveler choice are quite rare. In this paper, the data collected from a survey in Melbourne, Australia, is used to analyze the acceptance of P&R by travelers going to the central business district (CBD). In particular, we explore the influence that specific factors have on the choice of travel by those who are currently using P&R. The results indicate that the parking fee in the CBD area, travel time on public transport, and P&R transfer time affect traveler use of P&R. A quantitative assessment of the impact of these three factors is conducted by using a cumulative logistic regression model. Results reveal that the P&R transfer time has the highest sensitivity while public transport travel time has the least. To maximize the use of P&R facilities and public transport, insights into setting parking fees and designing P&R stations are presented.
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      Complete streets state laws & provisions: An analysis of legislative content and the state policy landscape, 1972–2018
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2019) Porter, Jamila M.; Bryan, Shenée J.; Lee, Joel M.; Corso, Phaedra S.; Davis, Marsha; Rathbun, Stephen L.
      Across the U.S., states have adopted Complete Streets legislative statutes—state laws that direct transportation agencies to routinely design and operate roadways to provide safe access for all users, including pedestrians, bicyclists, motorists, and public transit users. To date, there has not been a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the content and provisions of these laws. In this study, Complete Streets state statutes were identified using legal research databases. Using established legal mapping methods, a qualitative analysis was conducted of state laws that were effective through December 2018. A codebook and open-source data set were developed to support the public use of the data. Eighteen states and Washington, DC, have adopted Complete Streets legislative statutes. A total of 21 have been adopted, with 76% (n=16) of laws adopted since 2007. While the laws vary in content, detail, and specificity, several common provisions were identified across statutes. Complete Streets legislative statutes may be essential to ensure that road networks throughout states are safe, connected, and accessible for all users. This study provides key insights into the legislative landscape of Complete Streets state laws and makes available a new data set that can support future evaluations of these laws.
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      Modelling residential location choices with implicit availability of alternatives
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2019) Bashirul Haque, Md; Choudhury, Charisma; Hess, Stephane
      Choice set generation is a challenging aspect of disaggregate level residential location choice modelling due to the large number of candidate alternatives in the universal choice set (hundreds to hundreds of thousands). The classical Manski method (Manski, 1977) is infeasible here because of the explosion of the number of possible choice sets with the increase in the number of alternatives. Several alternative approaches have been proposed in recent years to deal with this issue, but these have limitations alongside strengths. For example, the Constrained Multinomial Logit (CMNL) model (Martínez et al., 2009) offers gains in efficiency and improvements in model fit but has weaknesses in terms of replicating the Manski model parameters. The rth-order Constrained Multinomial Logit (rCMNL) model (Paleti, 2015) performs better than the CMNL model in producing results consistent with the Manski model, but the benefits disappear when the number of alternatives in the universal choice set increases. In this study, we propose an improved CMNL model (referred to as Improved Constrained Multinomial Logit Model, ICMNL) with a higher order formulation of the CMNL penalty term that does not depend on the number of alternatives in the choice set. Therefore, it is expected to result in better model fit compared to the CMNL and the rCMNL model in cases with large universal choice sets. The performance of the ICMNL model against the CMNL and the rCMNL model is evaluated in an empirical study of residential location choices of households living in the Greater London Area. Zone level models are estimated for residential ownership and renting decisions where the number of alternatives in the universal choice set is 498 in each case. The performance of the models is examined both on the estimation sample and the holdout sample used for validation. The results of both ownership and renting models indicate that the ICMNL model performs considerably better compared to the CMNL and the rCMNL model for both the estimation and validation samples. The ICMNL model can thus help transport and urban planners in developing better prediction tools.
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      Gendered walkability: Building a daytime walkability index for women
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2019) Golan, Yael; Wilkinson, Nancy Lee; Henderson, Jason; Weverka, Aiko
      Urban walkability is influenced both by built environment features and by pedestrian demographics. Research has shown that factors influencing women’s walking differ from those affecting men’s. Using a mixed-method approach, this study creates a new women-specific, GIS-based walkability index using San Francisco as a case study, and answers two questions: Which variables most influence women’s propensity to walk? And Does the leading walkability index, Walk Score, reflect women’s walkability? Focus group participants (n=17) ranked crime, homelessness and street/sidewalk cleanliness as the three most influencing factors on women’s walkability, accounting for 58% to 67% of the Women’s Walkability Index’s total score. The least walkable areas in San Francisco, according to this index, are rated as some of the most walkable neighborhoods in the city by Walk Score, despite high crime and homelessness density. Walk Score is negatively correlated with the new Women’s Walkability Index (Spearman’s rho = -0.585) and inaccurately represents women’s walkability. If the new index accurately captures the reality of women’s walking, then some of the most widely accepted conventions about what kind of areas promote walking could be inaccurate when it comes to women.
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      On the accuracy of schedule-based GTFS for measuring accessibility
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2019) Wessel, Nate; Farber, Steven
      In this paper we assess the accuracy with which General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) schedule data can be used to measure accessibility by public transit as it varies over space and time. We use archived Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) data from four North American transit agencies to produce a detailed reconstruction of actual transit vehicle movements over the course of five days in a format that allows for travel time estimation directly comparable to schedule-based GTFS. With travel times estimated on both schedule-based and retrospective networks, we compute and compare a variety of accessibility measures. We find that origin-based accessibility even when averaged over one-hour periods can vary widely between locations. Origins with lower scheduled access tend to produce less reliable estimates with more variability from hour to hour in real accessibility, while higher access zones seem to converge on an estimate 5-15 percent lower than the schedule predicts. Such over- and under-predictions exhibit strong spatial patterns which should be of concern to those using accessibility metrics in statistical models. Momentary measures of accessibility are briefly discussed and found to be weakly related to momentary changes in real access. These findings bring into question the validity of some recent applications of GTFS data and point the way toward more robust methods for calculating accessibility.
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      Understanding the effects of individual attitudes, perceptions, and residential neighborhood types on university commuters’ bicycling decisions
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2019) Park, Yujin; Akar, Gulsah
      This study investigates the effects of individual perceptions and residential neighborhoods on university commuters’ bicycling decisions using the 2015 Ohio State University Travel Pattern Survey data. We generate eight attitudinal/perceptual components based on the 26 bicycling-related questions that capture detailed perceptions of commuters toward bicycling, neighborhood environments, and residential location choice. We create distinct neighborhood typologies combining land use and socioeconomic characteristics, including population, employment, housing and intersection densities, housing types, median age of housing stock, and median household income. Probit regression models are estimated to assess the effects of sociodemographic, attitudinal/perceptual components and neighborhood types while accounting for the residential self-selection effect. Results show that people residing in different neighborhood types reveal significant attitudinal differences in terms of their conditional willingness to bicycle, and evaluation of bicycle friendliness of neighborhoods and routes. We find that bicyclists are more likely to live in neighborhoods that they perceive as having good-quality for bicycling in terms of access to bicycle facilities and lower traffic levels. Results also show the significant association of neighborhood types with bicycle commuting outcomes. People from medium-density, mixed-use, and suburban single-family neighborhoods are less likely to commute by bicycle as compared to those from high-density, mixed-use neighborhoods.