Volume 02, Number 4, 2011

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    Medication Information Seeking Behavior in a Social Context: The Role of Lay and Professional Social Network Contacts
    (University of Minnesota, College of Pharmacy, 2011) Kjos, Andrea L.; Worley, Marcia M.; Schommer, Jon C.
    This study provided a view of the social context of medication information seeking from a patient’s perspective.This was an exploratory qualitative study with 40 adults to determine how patients communicate within social networks to seek medication information. Semi-structured interviews were used to determine the structure (who), the content provided (what), and the function of social sources of information (how/why). Data underwent ethnographic content analysis using theory and prior research driven themes. Coding matrices were created to identify emerging patterns for who supplied what information and how the information was used. Participants described seeking medication information from health professional or lay social network sources. Health professional sources’ strongest role was to provide factual information. In contrast, lay sources provided factual information and affective information such as personal experiences and beliefs or attitudes. Information sought from social sources displayed similar functioning roles in terms of how the information was used by the participants seeking the information. The study concluded that medication information is sought from social sources both inside and outside of healthcare. Emerging patterns found that lay sources may provide patients more than affective information about medications. Further, patients may be receiving factually based information other than from health professionals. By coming to a more complete understanding of the social nature of the information environment, health professionals can better understand information needs from a patient’s perspective.
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    The Effect of a Novel Proactive First Day Prescription Counseling Program on Adherence to Select Cardiovascular Medications
    (University of Minnesota, College of Pharmacy, 2011) McConaha, Jamie L.; Lynch, Kevin
    Objective: To determine the impact of a proactive first day prescription counseling program on medication adherence to new cardiovascular maintenance medications Design: Cross-sectional study Setting: Regional chain community pharmacy in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; August 2009 through November 2010 Patients: Data was collected from all patients aged 18-89 presenting with a new or transferred prescription or change in dosage within the study dates at four study locations Interventions: Patients presenting with a new or transferred prescription or change in dosage were identified to receive pharmacist or student pharmacist counseling. Data from the counseling session was tracked weekly to determine if the program increased adherence to statins, ACEIs and/or ARBs. Main Outcome Measured: Adherence to statins, ACEIs and/or ARBs was determined by differences in proportion of days covered (PDC) at six months and medication persistence to therapy. Results: Analysis was conducted using IDNA sm software. Results of the 6,916 prescriptions included in the study revealed that persistence rates for statins was 32.5% (intervention) and 34.2% (control) (p<0.001); ACEI/ARBs persistence was 37.3% (intervention) and 43.2% (control) (p<0.001). PDC was nonsignificant with respect to statins; 43.2% (intervention) and 45.1% (control); and 50.2% (intervention) and 57.1% (control) (p<0.001) for the ACEI/ARBs. Conclusion: Results from this study showed no improvement in adherence of statins or ACEIs/ARBs with the D1TC program versus control pharmacies, although several important limitations were identified. It is clear that a variety of methods and programs are needed to consistently improve adherence to maintenance medications.
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    Evaluating Pennsylvania Pharmacists’ Provision of Community-based Patient Care Services
    (University of Minnesota, College of Pharmacy, 2011) Osborne, Maria A.; Snyder, Margie E.; Hall, Deanne L.; Coley, Kim C.; McGivney, Melissa Somma
    Objective: To identify and describe Pennsylvania pharmacists who currently provide or are interested in providing community-based patient care services and are interested in joining a statewide practice network. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: February to June 2009 in Pennsylvania. Participants: 1700 pharmacists. Intervention: Mailed and electronic survey. Main outcome measures: Number and geographic location of pharmacists providing or interested in providing community-based patient care in Pennsylvania. Description of patient care documentation methods; physical space; services provided; perceived barriers to providing patient care; training needs; and interest in joining a statewide practice network. Results: The final analysis included data from 1700 pharmacists. Approximately one-third of pharmacists (n=554) were providing patient care services to community-based patients. Most were routinely documenting (67.5%) and many had a semi-private or private space to provide care. MTM and immunizations were the most common services provided. Respondents reported the most significant barrier to providing MTM, diabetes education, and smoking cessation education was time constraints, whereas training was a barrier for immunization provision. Most pharmacists were not being compensated for patient care services. Of the 869 pharmacists interested in joining a statewide network, those providing care were more interested in joining than those who were not (70.8% vs. 43.8%, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Pennsylvania pharmacists are interested in providing community-based patient care services and joining a statewide practice network focused on providing community-based patient care services. This research serves as a foundation for building a pharmacist practice network in Pennsylvania.
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    Drug Shortages in the US – Causes, Impact, and Strategies
    (University of Minnesota, College of Pharmacy, 2011) Gu, Anna; Wertheimer, Albert I.; Brown, Bernard; Shaya, Fadia T.
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    Assessing the acceptability of community pharmacy based pharmaceutical care services in Karachi
    (University of Minnesota, College of Pharmacy, 2011) Amir, Muhammad
    Provision of pharmaceutical care services in community pharmacies is a new trend in pharmacy practice worldwide. Published literature from developed countries is available showing benefits of pharmaceutical care services provided in community pharmacies. However, relatively little published literature is available from developing countries in which unique market environments are encountered. This study was conducted to assess the acceptability of community pharmacy based pharmaceutical care services in Karachi. Pharmaceutical care services were developed and offered to pharmacy customers for a period of two months. Acceptability was evaluated with respect to enrollment of participants in the program, discontinuation, and complaints registered. The findings provide a better understanding of pharmaceutical care marketing strategies and are discussed within the context of the health care environment in Karachi.
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    The Need for Transgender Health Content in the Pharmacy Curriculum
    (University of Minnesota, College of Pharmacy, 2011) Parkhill, Amy L.; Gainsburg, Jeanne; Fearing, Scott; Mathews, Jennifer L.
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    Integrative Student Learning: An Effective Team Learning Activity in a Learner-Centered Paradigm
    (University of Minnesota, College of Pharmacy, 2011) Karimi, Reza; Elbarbry, Fawzy; Fortner, Jeff
    Purpose: An Integrative Student Learning (ISL) activity was developed with the intent to enhance the dynamic of student teamwork and enhance student learning by fostering critical-thinking skills, self-directed learning skills, and active learning. Case Study: The ISL activity consists of three portions: teambuilding, teamwork, and a facilitator driven “closing the loop” feedback discussion. For teambuilding, a set of clue sheets or manufacturer‘s drug containers were distributed among student pairs who applied their pharmaceutical knowledge to identify two more student pairs with similar clues or drugs, thus building a team of six. For teamwork, each team completed online exams, composed of integrated pharmaceutical science questions with clinical correlates, using only selected online library resources. For the feedback discussion, facilitators evaluated student impressions, opened a discussion about the ISL activity, and provided feedback to teams’ impressions and questions. This study describes three different ISL activities developed and implemented over three days with first year pharmacy students. Facilitators’ interactions with students and three surveys indicated a majority of students preferred ISL over traditional team activities and over 90% agreed ISL activities promoted active learning, critical-thinking, self-directed learning, teamwork, and student confidence in online library searches. Conclusions: The ISL activity has proven to be an effective learning activity that promotes teamwork and integration of didactic pharmaceutical sciences to enhance student learning of didactic materials and confidence in searching online library resources. It was found that all of this can be accomplished in a short amount of class time with a very reasonable amount of preparation.
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    Adopting an Advanced Community Pharmacy Practice Experiential Educational Model Across Colleges of Pharmacy
    (University of Minnesota, College of Pharmacy, 2011) Rodis, Jennifer L.; Jennings, Brandon T.
    Objective: To discuss the experience of sharing an experiential model of education and practice development between two colleges of pharmacy and to provide a framework to guide faculty in this type of collaboration. Case Study: The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy (OSU COP) Partner for Promotion (PFP) program was developed in response to the need for advancing practice in the community pharmacy setting. After successful implementation of this program, the PFP program design and materials were shared, adapted, and implemented at the University of Utah College of Pharmacy (Utah COP). Collaborating faculty developed a framework based on lessons learned through this experience which proposes key guiding strategies as considerations to address prior to embarking on sharing any aspect of an educational program or model between institutions. Each step of the framework is described and applied to the process followed by The OSU COP and Utah COP in sharing the PFP program. Additional considerations related to transfer of educational models are discussed. Results/Conclusion: Sharing the education model and materials associated with the PFP program between institutions has enhanced experiential opportunities for students and helped develop residency training sites in the community setting. In addition, the relationship between the two colleges has contributed to faculty development, as well as an increase in community pharmacy service development with community pharmacy partners at each institution. It is hoped this experience will help guide collaborations between other colleges of pharmacy to enhance education of future pharmacists while positively impacting pharmacy practice, teaching, and research by faculty.
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    Building a Community of Scholars in Educational Research: A Case Study for Success
    (University of Minnesota, College of Pharmacy, 2011) Brahm, Nancy C.; Davis, Tamra S.; Peirce, Gretchen L.; Lamb, Michelle M.
    Objective: To present the model of the Education Research/Scholarship of Teaching Community of Scholarship (EdCOS) as one Community of Scholars (COS) within a department of pharmacy. Case Study: A case study describing the Education Research/Scholarship of Teaching Community of Scholars (EdCOS). Faculty members were self-selected into one or more of eight COS. The EdCOS was comprised of 14 members. The EdCOS developed a vision statement to “foster and support a learning culture that enables faculty to capture and evaluate teaching and learning experiences.” The process by which the EdCOS set out to initiate this COS will be discussed. Since its inception all members of the EdCOS have become IRB Certified. Through a combined project, members had the opportunity to develop, learn, and acquire experience in areas of conducting research from the conception of a project through final submission of the manuscript. Departmental publications and grant funding increased over the years after the implementation of the COS. Conclusion: Although cause and effect cannot be explicitly determined, the EdCOS has had a positive impact on its members building confidence, experience, and ideas for future projects.