Minnesota Extension Nutrient Management Podcas‪t

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The Nutrient Management Podcast provides Minnesota farmers and agriculture professionals with the latest research and recommendations from University of Minnesota Extension soil fertility specialists and educators.

The podcast is available at https://blog-crop-news.extension.umn.edu/search/label/NM%20podcast.

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Now showing 1 - 20 of 76
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    Statewide best management practices for nitrogen: A valuable resource for Minnesota growers
    (2024-05-22) Kaiser, Daniel; Carlson, Brad
    In this episode of the Advancing Nitrogen Smart series, we're talking in-depth about nitrogen best management practices. How are BMPs calculated, and how do they change over time? What should growers keep in mind regarding regional adjustments in the BMPs? What kinds of risks are these BMPs designed to address? How do the 4 Rs figure in to Minnesota's nitrogen best management practices? Additional resources: Nitrogen Fertilizer Best Management Practices for Agricultural Lands (https://www.blogger.com/blog/post/edit/5575265938373902114/3432868468525894486); Fertilizing Corn in Minnesota (https://www.blogger.com/blog/post/edit/5575265938373902114/3432868468525894486).
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    Nitrogen Smart is going digital! Podcasts, videos will help more farmers improve N fertilizer practices
    (2024-05-14) Carlson, Brad
    Understanding how nitrogen behaves in the environment is more important than ever. Having access to unbiased, research-based information is crucial for growers as they try to make the most efficient input decisions for their farms, maximizing profits while at the same time minimizing nitrogen loss to the environment. For the last decade, the Nitrogen Smart curriculum at University of Minnesota Extension has been examining and unpacking the latest in nitrogen research. This program is now being presented in short, topic-specific podcasts and easy-to-watch videos. The new program, Advancing Nitrogen Smart, will feature timely topics for Minnesota farmers and agricultural professionals. The defining principle of Nitrogen Smart has always been that participants are not told what to do; instead, they are given the information necessary to make their own best decisions. In this short episode, U of M Extension educator Brad Carlson introduces the Advancing Nitrogen Smart series and some of the topics to be discussed in future episodes, such as nitrogen fundamentals and how N behaves in the environment, nitrogen recommendations and the research that went into them, adapting management practices, and more.
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    Nitrogen placement: What Minnesota farmers should know about depth, incorporation, loss pathways, and more
    (2024-05-08) Wilcox, Jack; Carlson, Brad; Kaiser, Daniel
    Understanding how nitrogen behaves in the environment is more important than ever. And when growers have access to unbiased, research-based information, they're better equipped to make farm-specific nitrogen management decisions. Here at Advancing Nitrogen Smart, we unpack and examine the latest up-to-date nitrogen data to help farmers maximize their profits while at the same time minimize nitrogen loss to the environment. We cover topics that are timely and relevant for Minnesota farmers and agricultural professionals, just as we've been doing for the last 10 years with our in-person and online Nitrogen Smart courses. We're starting off this series with a discussion about placement, and what Minnesota farmers should know about depth, incorporation, loss pathways, and more!
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    Nitrogen and sulfur: In-season application, nutrient interactions, precision tech & more
    (2024-05-07) Kaiser, Daniel; Miao, Yuxin; Coulter, Jeff; Fernandez, Fabian
    In this episode of the Nutrient Management Podcast, we're talking about nitrogen and sulfur application. What does current nitrogen and sulfur research mean for Minnesota growers? What do we know about the relationship between N and S in crops? What -if any- considerations should farmers make when applying S? Do N application rates need to be changed? With an earlier planting window this year will there be any issues related to N and S growers should be concerned about? Additional resources: Is it worth applying sulfur to your soybean crop? (https://blog-crop-news.extension.umn.edu/2024/04/is-it-worth-applying-sulfur-to-your.html); Sulfur fertilizer application: Does S carry over from one year to the next? (https://blog-crop-news.extension.umn.edu/2023/11/sulfur-fertilizer-application-does-s.html); Making sense of Minnesota's corn fertilizer guidelines: Frequently asked questions and answers (https://blog-crop-news.extension.umn.edu/2022/05/q-with-dan-kaiser-on-minnesotas-updated.html); Precision Agriculture Center (https://precisionag.umn.edu/).
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    Soybean fertilizer management: IDC, sulfur, P and K soil tests, and more
    (2024-04-15) Kaiser, Daniel; Vetsch, Jeff; Naeve, Seth
    In this episode of the Nutrient Management Podcast, we're talking about soybean fertilizer management. What should farmers who are growing soybeans this year be thinking about, including IDC concerns from last year? What does new research tell us about soybean and sulfur? Are there other nutrients or practices that our panelists do or don't suggest for soybean based on current research? What tips do our panelists have for Minnesota soybean growers looking to increase yield? Additional resources: Managing iron deficiency chlorosis in soybean (https://extension.umn.edu/crop-specific-needs/managing-iron-deficiency-chlorosis-soybean); Is it worth applying sulfur to your soybean crop? (https://blog-crop-news.extension.umn.edu/2024/04/is-it-worth-applying-sulfur-to-your.html); Sulfur fertilizer application: Does S carry over from one year to the next? (https://blog-crop-news.extension.umn.edu/2023/11/sulfur-fertilizer-application-does-s.html); Soybean fertilizer guidelines (https://extension.umn.edu/crop-specific-needs/soybean-fertilizer-guidelines)
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    Spring fertilizer outlook: Key decisions after a warm winter
    (2024-03-06) Kaiser, Daniel; Fernandez, Fabian; Pease, Lindsay; Carlson, Brad
    This episode of the Nutrient Management Podcast is our 2024 Spring fertilizer outlook: Key decisions after a warm winter. What are the field conditions our panelists are seeing across the state? What options for early fertilizer application should Minnesota growers consider? What practices should be avoided-and why? Should growers be concerned about nitrogen carryover? What economic practices should growers keep in mind as the season begins? Additional resources: Corn fertilizer guidelines (https://extension.umn.edu/crop-specific-needs/fertilizing-corn-minnesota); Soybean fertilizer guidelines (https://extension.umn.edu/crop-specific-needs/soybean-fertilizer-guidelines); FINBIN - The Farm Financial Management Database (https://finbin.umn.edu/)
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    Cover crops in Minnesota: Recent challenges and future solutions
    (2024-02-29) Cates, Anna; Vetsch, Jeff; House, Jared; Wilcox, Jack
    In this episode of the Nutrient Management Podcast, we're talking about cover crops in Minnesota: Recent challenges and future solutions. What were the cover crop issues for 2022 and 2023? Based on the conditions right now and from last spring, what might some good management practices be going forward? What was the decision-making process for a panelist adjusting rye seeding rate requirements in the fall of 2024 when drilled. What advice would the panel have for someone brand new to cover crops, and who has concerns that were exacerbated by this last cycle? Additional resources: Why did cover crops cause issues in Minnesota the last two years and what should growers do going forward? (https://blog-crop-news.extension.umn.edu/2023/09/why-did-cover-crops-cause-issues-in.html); Recording of Feb. 2024 Strategic Farming webinar on "Thirsty cover crops: Do they impact our cash crops?" (https://youtu.be/LLt1ayXvy1o?si=90YWp1sI0esR7wie); Register for Cover Crop Academy: New hybrid, year-long, statewide course starts June 2024 (https://blog-crop-news.extension.umn.edu/2024/02/announcing-university-of-minnesota.html); Growing cover crops in Minnesota: 4 great resources to get you started (https://blog-crop-news.extension.umn.edu/2021/03/growing-cover-crops-in-minnesota-4.html); Cover crop recipes, Midwest Cover Crops Council (https://www.midwestcovercrops.org/getting-started-correct/#recipes); Grant County SWCD (https://grantswcd.org/); Minnesota NRCS (https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/conservation-basics/conservation-by-state/minnesota).
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    Episode 69: AFREC research roundup: 2023 nutrient management findings
    (2024-01-22) Kaiser, Daniel; Fernandez, Fabian; Vetsch, Jeff; Pease, Lindsay
    This episode of the Nutrient Management Podcast is our 2023 AFREC research roundup. What is AFREC and how does it help our panelists conduct their research? What AFREC-funded projects are they currently working on? Have there been any interesting findings from the 2023 growing season? What have been our panelists’ favorite AFREC research projects and why? What would happen if AFREC were to go away? Guests:Daniel Kaiser, Extension nutrient management specialist (St. Paul; Jeff Vetsch, U of M researcher (Waseca); Lindsay Pease, Extension nutrient and water management specialist (Crookston; Fabian Fernandez, Extension nutrient management specialist (St. Paul). Additional Resources: 2024 Nutrient Management, and Nitrogen conferences (https://blog-crop-news.extension.umn.edu/2023/12/register-now-for-2024-nitrogen-nutrient.html), AFREC website (https://mnsoilfertility.com/), AFREC video (https://youtu.be/AlbJyOOZmJk), MDA web page on AFREC (https://www.mda.state.mn.us/business-dev-loans-grants/agricultural-fertilizer-research-education-council-afrec)
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    Episode 68: Nitrogen management in southeast Minnesota: What's the situation and what's being done?
    (2023-12-13) Vetsch, Jeff; Carlson, Brad; Klinger, Greg
    In this episode of the Nutrient Management Podcast, we’re talking about nitrogen management and water quality in southeast Minnesota. What is the situation in southeast Minnesota and why is it different from the rest of the state? What is the history of this work in southeast Minnesota on nitrogen issues? What is being done about the situation, and what are our current recommendations for southeast MN? Where does our panel see this issue going in the future? GuestsBrad Carlson, Extension educator (Mankato); Jeff Vetsch, U of M researcher (Waseca); Greg Klinger, Olmsted County Soil and Water Conservation District (Rochester). Additional resources:How to interpret a water test for nitrate (https://www.blogger.com/blog/post/edit/5575265938373902114/5163966929856964620); Watershed planning and nitrate reduction podcast (https://www.blogger.com/blog/post/edit/5575265938373902114/5163966929856964620); Six observations from six years of tile sampling for nitrates in southeast Minnesota (https://www.blogger.com/blog/post/edit/5575265938373902114/5163966929856964620); Nitrogen Smart (https://www.blogger.com/blog/post/edit/5575265938373902114/5163966929856964620); Nitrogen management: Two on-farm research programs offer Minnesota corn growers opportunity to improve N fertilizer practices (https://www.blogger.com/blog/post/edit/5575265938373902114/5163966929856964620); Minnesota Agricultural Water Quality Certification Program (MAWQCP): Impacts on farm economics and the environment (https://www.blogger.com/blog/post/edit/5575265938373902114/5163966929856964620); Olmsted County Soil and Water Conservation District (https://www.blogger.com/blog/post/edit/5575265938373902114/5163966929856964620); Southeast Minnesota Groundwater Resources (https://www.blogger.com/blog/post/edit/5575265938373902114/5163966929856964620); Fertilizing Corn in Minnesota (https://www.blogger.com/blog/post/edit/5575265938373902114/5163966929856964620).
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    Episode 67: Edge of field N and P Reduction Strategies: What to Know About Conservation Drainage Practices
    (2023-12-11) Wilcox, Jack; Carlson, Brad; Christianson, Laura; Strock, Jeff
    In this episode of the Nutrient Management Podcast, we’re talking about edge of field N and P reduction strategies. What is an edge of field practice and why are they used? What specific practices do our panelists have experience with, and which have the most potential for use in Minnesota? Are these practices a farmer can pursue alone, or do they require local government to be involved? What assistance is available for farmers who are interested in one of these practices? Guests: Brad Carlson, Extension educator (Mankato); Laura Christianson, researcher, U of M Department of Soil, Water, and Climate (St. Paul); Jeff Strock, Extension soil scientist (Lamberton). Additional resources: Minnesota Nutrient Reduction Strategy; NRCS Minnesota; Minnesota SWCDs on the web; SWROC Soil & Agricultural Water Management; Video: A Holistic Approach to Managing Agricultural Drainage Water; Bioreactors: Reducing water pollution with microbes and wood chips; Podcast: Watershed planning and nitrate reduction; Nitrogen Smart online courses; Plan to attend Nitrogen, Nutrient Management Conferences in February 2024 in St. Cloud, Mankato; How to interpret a water test for nitrate; Before applying manure, check the Runoff Risk Advisory Forecast. For the latest nutrient management information, subscribe to the Nutrient Management Podcast wherever you listen and never miss an episode! And don't forget to subscribe to the Minnesota Crop News daily or weekly email newsletter, subscribe to our YouTube channel, like UMN Extension Nutrient Management on Facebook, follow us on Twitter, and visit our website. Support for the Nutrient Management Podcast is provided by Minnesota's fertilizer tonnage fee through the Agricultural Fertilizer Research & Education Council (AFREC). Learn more at MNsoilfertility.com.
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    Episode 66: Fall Soil Sampling
    (2023-10-02) Wilcox, Jack; Kaiser, Daniel; Fernandez, Fabian; Carlson, Brad; Pease, Lindsay
    In this episode of the Nutrient Management Podcast, we’re talking about fall soil sampling. What do conditions look like around the state? Is there a best time to take soil samples in the fall? What should you watch out for when sampling dry fields? What should you keep in mind when using grid versus zone soil sampling? Guests: Daniel Kaiser, Extension nutrient management specialist (St. Paul); Brad Carlson, Extension educator (Mankato); Lindsay Pease, Extension nutrient and water management specialist (Crookston); Fabian Fernandez, Extension nutrient management specialist (St. Paul). Additional resources: Video: How to take a soil sample; Understanding the soil test report; Fall fertilizer outlook: Prices, drought, N sources, soil testing, and more; U of M fertilizer recommendations by crop; Nitrogen Smart’s online course adds advanced sessions on manure management, the 4Rs; Learn about your land using the Web Soil Survey; Finbin. For the latest nutrient management information, subscribe to the Nutrient Management Podcast wherever you listen and never miss an episode! And don't forget to subscribe to the Minnesota Crop News daily or weekly email newsletter, subscribe to our YouTube channel, like UMN Extension Nutrient Management on Facebook, follow us on Twitter, and visit our website. Support for the Nutrient Management Podcast is provided by Minnesota's fertilizer tonnage fee through the Agricultural Fertilizer Research & Education Council (AFREC). Learn more at MNsoilfertility.com.
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    Episode 65: Fall Manure Best Practices
    (2023-09-20) Wilcox, Jack; Wilson, Melissa; Erb, Kevin; Andersen, Daniel
    In this episode of the Nutrient Management Podcast, we’re talking about fall manure best practices. What are some best management practices for the fall manure application season? If you're a crop farmer thinking about getting manure this fall, what information do you need from the producer or the manure applicator? What are some things to look out for? What's on the horizon for manure application? What are some practical safety solutions surrounding manure and the application of manure? Guests: Melissa Wilson, Extension manure nutrient management specialist (St. Paul); Kevin Erb, Director, Conservation Professional Training Program, University of WI - Madison; Daniel Andersen, Extension specialist and assistant professor, Iowa State University. Additional resources: Manure research in Minnesota - U of M Extension Storymap; Conservation Professional Training Program; The Manure Scoop blog; Runoff Risk Advisory Forecast; Do the "4R's" apply to manure? You betcha!; Tips for fall manure application, and how to avoid nutrient loss. For the latest nutrient management information, subscribe to the Nutrient Management Podcast wherever you listen and never miss an episode! And don't forget to subscribe to the Minnesota Crop News daily or weekly email newsletter, subscribe to our YouTube channel, like UMN Extension Nutrient Management on Facebook, follow us on Twitter, and visit our website. Support for the Nutrient Management Podcast is provided by Minnesota's fertilizer tonnage fee through the Agricultural Fertilizer Research & Education Council (AFREC). Learn more at MNsoilfertility.com.
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    Episode 64: 2023 Fall Fertilizer Outlook
    (2023-08-09) Wilcox, Jack; Kaiser, Daniel; Carlson, Brad; Strock, Jeff
    In this episode of the Nutrient Management Podcast, we’re talking about the fall fertilizer outlook for 2023. What are growing conditions looking like around the state? What is the current status of fertilizer prices and availability in Minnesota? What should growers be thinking about heading into fall? There is a lot of talk about environmental issues related to fertilizer use and the potential for future regulation. How should that play into application decisions for this fall? Guests: Daniel Kaiser, Extension nutrient management specialist (St. Paul); Jeff Strock, Extension soil scientist (Lamberton); Brad Carlson, Extension educator (Mankato) . Additional resources:Nitrogen Smart Online Course; 2023 Fertilizer Guidelines for Agronomic Crops in Minnesota publication now available; Making sense of Minnesota’s corn fertilizer guidelines: Frequently asked questions and answers; IDC in soybean: 4 things to know about managing iron deficiency chlorosis; Before applying manure, check the Runoff Risk Advisory Forecast; Nitrogen-fixing biological products: New report summarizes research from across the Corn Belt. For the latest nutrient management information, subscribe to the Nutrient Management Podcast wherever you listen and never miss an episode! And don't forget to subscribe to the Minnesota Crop News daily or weekly email newsletter, subscribe to our YouTube channel, like UMN Extension Nutrient Management on Facebook, follow us on Twitter, and visit our website. Support for the Nutrient Management Podcast is provided by Minnesota's fertilizer tonnage fee through the Agricultural Fertilizer Research & Education Council (AFREC). Learn more at MNsoilfertility.com.
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    Episode 63: Measuring and Building Soil Carbon
    (2023-07-26) Wilcox, Jack; Cates, Anna; Gutknecht, Jessica; Sanford, Gregg
    In this episode of the Nutrient Management Podcast, we’re talking about measuring and building soil carbon, and some challenges and solutions for farmers and researchers. Why is carbon in the soil being considered as a credit in the global carbon cycle? What practices change soil carbon? What makes soil carbon complicated to measure? What do you think is the ideal (or is there an ideal) carbon measurement scheme and what would it look like? What new research exists to address some of these challenges? Is Minnesota uniquely positioned in any way to contribute to solving these issues? Guests: Anna Cates, Extension soil health specialist (St. Paul); Jessica Gutknecht, faculty, U of M Department of Soil, Water, and Climate (St. Paul); Gregg Sanford, research scientist, U of Wisc Department of Plant and Agra Ecosystem Sciences (Madison). Additional Resources: Contact information for Anna Cates: catesa@umn.edu; Contact information for Gregg Sanford: gsanford@wisc.edu; SOCNET; MN Farmers Union Guide to Carbon Markets; Carbon markets: Paying farmers to reduce tillage, plant cover crops; Minnesota Office for Soil Health; SPRUCE. For the latest nutrient management information, subscribe to the Nutrient Management Podcast wherever you listen and never miss an episode! And don't forget to subscribe to the Minnesota Crop News daily or weekly email newsletter, subscribe to our YouTube channel, like UMN Extension Nutrient Management on Facebook, follow us on Twitter, and visit our website. Support for the Nutrient Management Podcast is provided by Minnesota's fertilizer tonnage fee through the Agricultural Fertilizer Research & Education Council (AFREC). Learn more at MNsoilfertility.com
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    Episode 62: In-Season Nitrogen Decision Tools
    (2023-06-13) Wilcox, Jack; Kaiser, Daniel; Fernandez, Fabian; Vetsch, Jeff
    "In this episode of the Nutrient Management Podcast, we’re discussing nitrogen decision tools. How much are we actually at risk of losing fall or spring applied nitrogen because soils are saturated in May? What options do we have to assess nitrogen loss following heavy rain? If a grower is planning on applying nitrogen in season, what suggestions would you have for sources, timing, placement, and inhibitors? How late in the growing season can you apply nitrogen and what should you consider? "
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    Episode 61: Soybean Fertilizer Management
    (2023-05-08) Wilcox, Jack; Kaiser, Daniel; Fernandez, Fabian; Vetsch, Jeff; Naeve, Seth
    In this episode of the Nutrient Management Podcast, we’re discussing soybean fertilizer management. What does the research say on whether foliar application of liquid fertilizer increases yield? Are other nutrients such as sulfur or nitrogen recommended? What nutrients or practices are not suggested for soybean? Guests: Fabian Fernandez, Extension nutrient management specialist (St. Paul); Daniel Kaiser, Extension nutrient management specialist (St. Paul); Seth Naeve, Extension soybean agronomist (St. Paul); Jeff Vetch, U of M researcher (Waseca). Additional resources: New study finds foliar fertilizers rarely increase soybean yield; Soybean fertilizer guidelines; Soybean nutrient calculator; Managing iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) in soybeans. For the latest nutrient management information, subscribe to the Nutrient Management Podcast wherever you listen and never miss an episode! And don't forget to subscribe to the Minnesota Crop News daily or weekly email newsletter, subscribe to our YouTube channel, like UMN Extension Nutrient Management on Facebook, follow us on Twitter, and visit our website. Support for the Nutrient Management Podcast is provided by Minnesota's fertilizer tonnage fee through the Agricultural Fertilizer Research & Education Council (AFREC). Learn more at MNsoilfertility.com
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    Episode 60: 2023 Spring Fertilizer Outlook
    (2023-04-03) Wilcox, Jack; Kaiser, Daniel; Vetsch, Jeff; Carlson, Brad
    In this episode of the Nutrient Management Podcast, we’re talking about the spring fertilizer outlook for 2023. Will the dry conditions last year have repercussions for how fertilizer is managed this year? What considerations should growers be making regarding fertilizer for a potentially late spring? Is there any new research on fertilizer products like biologicals or inhibitors that Minnesota growers should be aware of? Guests: Brad Carlson (bcarlson@umn.edu), Extension educator (Mankato); Daniel Kaiser, Extension nutrient management specialist (St. Paul); Jeff Vetsch, U of M researcher (Waseca). Additional resources: For the second year in row, taking a pre-plant soil nitrate test this spring could pay big; Planting or nitrogen application: With a wet spring, which one comes first?; Nutrient Management Podcast: Phosphorus and potassium application in a late spring; What's new on the topic of biostimulants? For the latest nutrient management information, subscribe to the Nutrient Management Podcast wherever you listen and never miss an episode! And don't forget to subscribe to the Minnesota Crop News daily or weekly email newsletter, subscribe to our YouTube channel, like UMN Extension Nutrient Management on Facebook, follow us on Twitter, and visit our website. Support for the Nutrient Management Podcast is provided by Minnesota's fertilizer tonnage fee through the Agricultural Fertilizer Research & Education Council (AFREC). Learn more at MNsoilfertility.com
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    Episode 59: Fertilizing Lawns and Gardens
    (2023-03-14) Wilcox, Jack; Rosen, Carl; Hoidal, Natalie; Trappe, Jon; marsden, Christy
    In this episode of the Nutrient Management Podcast, we’re talking about fertilizing lawns and gardens. Why is proper nutrient management for lawns and gardens important? What should home gardeners and lawn caretakers know about nutrient management? Why is phosphorus fertilizer use restricted in the Twin Cities metro area and on lawns in Minnesota? What can gardeners and lawn caretakers do to protect local water quality? Guests: Carl Rosen, Extension nutrient management specialist; Natalie Hoidal, Extension educator - local foods and vegetable crops; Jon Trappe, Extension educator - turfgrass; Christy Marsden, Master Gardener Volunteer Program. Additional Resources:Soil Testing Lab; Yard and Garden News; Yard and Garden YouTube channel; Fertilizing Lawns; Ask a Master Gardener. For the latest nutrient management information, subscribe to the Nutrient Management Podcast wherever you listen and never miss an episode! And don't forget to subscribe to the Minnesota Crop News daily or weekly email newsletter, subscribe to our YouTube channel, like UMN Extension Nutrient Management on Facebook, follow us on Twitter, and visit our website. Support for the Nutrient Management Podcast is provided by Minnesota's fertilizer tonnage fee through the Agricultural Fertilizer Research & Education Council (AFREC). Learn more at MNsoilfertility.com
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    Episode 58: Watershed Planning and Nitrate Reduction
    (2023-02-08) Wilcox, Jack; Carlson, Brad; Cords, Wayne; Strock, Jeff
    In this episode of the Nutrient Management Podcast, we’re talking about watershed planning and nitrate reduction. What are watershed plans and what goes into them? How do watershed plans affect nutrient management decision-making? What should farmers know about edge-of-field and nutrient management planning in relation to water quality goals? Guests: Wayne Cords, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency; Brad Carlson, Extension nutrient management specialist (Mankato); Jeff Strock, Extension soil scientist (Lamberton). Additional Resources: Advanced Nitrogen Smart, Feb. 13 - March 17 at various locations around the state; Minnesota Nutrient Reduction Strategy (MPCA); One Watershed, One Plan (MN BWSR); Where Can I Get Support? (MN BWSR); Minnesota State Programs (USDA FSA).
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    Episode 57: Variable Rate Technology
    (2023-01-10) Wilcox, Jack; Kaiser, Daniel; Vetsch, Jeff; Carlson, Brad
    In this episode of the Nutrient Management Podcast, we’re talking about variable rate technology. What are some reasons that farmers might want to use variable-rate fertilizer instead of applying a single rate? Is there a difference between variable rating, different nutrient types? What are the technologies that are used to prescribe variable-rate fertilizer and what is the theory behind them? If farmers apply fertilizer at a variable rate, how should they evaluate those outcomes? Guests: Brad Carlson, Extension educator (Mankato) ; Daniel Kaiser, Extension nutrient management specialist (St. Paul); Jeff Vetch, Extension nutrient management researcher (Waseca). Additional resources: Variable rate nitrogen and nitrogen advisory tools: Do they work?; Fertilizer recommendation technology: What is success?; On-farm precision ag research update: In-season site-specific side-dress nitrogen rate recommendations for corn.