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    Data in support of: AIS Explorer: Intervention Impact - An application for planning cost-effective AIS prevention programs
    (2024-01-22) Angell, Nichole R; Bajcz, Alex; Kinsley, Amy; Keller, Reuben; Phelps, Nicholas B. D.; nangell@glc.org; Angell, Nichole R.; Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species Research Center (MAISRC)
    The movement of aquatic invasive species (AIS) between waterbodies is often facilitated by overland transport on recreational boats. Once established, AIS can have detrimental ecological effects that are difficult or impossible to manage. Prevention is the most cost-effective AIS intervention strategy, with many management agencies focused on implementing spread prevention techniques such as boater education, watercraft inspection, and hot water decontamination. Given resource constraints, deciding which spread prevention techniques to implement and where to place them is a decision fraught with uncertainty. In this study, we collected data for, developed, and tested a new application entitled “Intervention Impact” for the AIS Explorer, an online AIS program-planning dashboard (www.aisexplorer.umn.edu). The application assists AIS managers by simulating scenarios derived from user-defined lake-level budgets, effort, and effectiveness of interventions, enabling them to make comparisons. The outputs provide estimates for risk reduction and infestations averted for both zebra mussel and starry stonewort in Minnesota lakes. We demonstrate the utility of this application using the conditions of Cass County, Minnesota, USA as a case study. Our simulation outputs highlight the tradeoffs of each prevention strategy applied given budget constraints and demonstrate that value of a data-driven approach to guide the implementation of cost-effective prevention plans.
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    Seasonal influence on detection probabilities for multiple aquatic invasive species using environmental DNA
    (2023-12-14) Rounds, Christopher; Arnold, Todd W; Chun, Chan Lan; Dumke, Josh; Totsch, Anna; Keppers, Adelle; Edbald, Katarina; García, Samantha M; Larson, Eric R; Nelson, Jenna KR; Hansen, Gretchen JA; round060@umn.edu; Rounds, Christopher; University of Minnesota Fisheries Systems Ecology Lab
    Aquatic invasive species (AIS) are a threat to freshwater ecosystems. Documenting AIS prevalence is critical to effective management and early detection. However, conventional monitoring for AIS is time and resource intensive and is rarely applied at the resolution and scale required for effective management. Monitoring using environmental DNA (eDNA) of AIS has the potential to enable surveillance at a fraction of the cost of conventional methods, but key questions remain related to how eDNA detection probability varies among environments, seasons, and multiple species with different life histories. To quantify spatiotemporal variation in the detection probability of AIS using eDNA sampling, we surveyed 20 lakes with known populations of four aquatic invasive species: Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio), Rusty Crayfish (Faxonius rusticus), Spiny Waterflea (Bythotrephes longimanus), and Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). We collected water samples at 10 locations per lake, five times throughout the open water season. Quantitative PCR was used with species-specific assays to determine the presence of species DNA in water samples. Using Bayesian occupancy models, we quantified the effects of lake and site characteristics and sampling season on eDNA detection probability. These results provide critical information for decision makers interested in using eDNA as a multispecies monitoring tool and highlight the importance of sampling when species are in DNA releasing life history stages.
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    Data for refining copper concentrations using the Biotic Ligand Model to maximize zebra mussel control while minimizing non-target effects
    (2023-10-12) Dahlberg, Angelique D.; Waller, Diane L.; Severson, Todd J.; Barbour, Matthew T.; Meulemans, Matthew; Wise, Jeremy K.; Bajcz, Alex W.; Jankowski, Mark; Phelps, Nicholas B. D.; edge0023@umn.edu; Dahlberg, Angelique D.
    Copper in various forms can be toxic to aquatic organisms at high concentrations and has been used as a pesticide in lake management since the early 1900s. Managers have recently extended this use to control aquatic invasive species, including zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). Because copper toxicity changes with changing concentrations of water chemistry parameters (e.g., pH, temperature, and other cations such as Ca2+ and Mg2+), using the same copper concentration to target the same species in two different waterbodies could have different outcomes. However, past zebra mussel control projects have selected copper concentrations irrespective of water chemistry differences. We demonstrate, in a two-part study, how measuring water chemistry parameters and using the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) can help predict a site-specific copper concentration that will kill zebra mussels while minimizing effects on non-target species. We first tested the application of the BLM for predicting the effects of a copper concentration on non-target species. We found that Daphnia magna (daphnia) had a 50% chance of survival at 9.50 µg Cu/L (i.e., the 50% lethal concentration, LC50), within our BLM-predicted range of 3.38-16.95 µg Cu/L LC50 values. Given the accuracy of our prediction, in the future, managers could make similar predictions and tailor copper concentrations to their management goals. Secondly, we measured zebra mussel larvae (veliger) mortality at added copper concentrations ranging from 0-191 µg Cu/L and assessed exposure–response using a logistic regression model that also included water chemistry parameters. This model can be applied to future projects; using it, managers can predict the amount of copper in a particular waterbody that will kill a predetermined proportion of zebra mussels and simultaneously predict what non-target effects to monitor or expect.
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    R Code, Data, and Output Supporting: Facilitating effective collaboration to prevent aquatic invasive species spread
    (2023-09-05) Bajcz, Alex, W.; Kinsley, Amy; Haight, Robert; Phelps, Nicholas; bajcz003@umn.edu; Bajcz, Alex W.; Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species Research Center; Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine; USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station; Department of Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology
    This repository contains R code, raw and processed data, and associated outputs supporting the results reported in: Kinsley, A, Bajcz A, Haight R, and Phelps N. 2023. Facilitating effective collaboration to prevent aquatic invasive species spread. Biological Invasions [in press]. In brief, this repository provides the inputs, code, and documentation for our process of generating optimization models, using linear integer programming (LIP) in R, that would find optimal placement patterns for watercraft inspection stations to thwart the movement of boats at risk of carrying aquatic invasive species from one lake to another within the state of Minnesota, given certain assumptions about how jurisdictional authority operates within the state.
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    Complete Data and Analysis for: Effects of seed traits and dormancy break treatments on germination of four aquatic plant species
    (2023-06-29) Verhoeven, Michael R; Bacon, Jonah A; Larkin, Daniel J; michael.verhoeven.mrv@gmail.com; Verhoeven, Michael; Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species Research Center
    This repository contains the raw data and code necessary to conduct the analyses in the companion paper.
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    Data for Field testing of an enzymatic quorum quencher coating additive to reduce biocorrosion of steel
    (2023-06-01) Huang, Siqian; Bergonzi, Celine; Smith, Sherry; Hicks, Randall; Elias, Mikael H; huan1012@d.umn.edu; Siqian, Huang
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    R Code and Data Supporting: A comparison of survey method efficiency for estimating densities of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)
    (2023-05-25) Ferguson, Jake M; Jimenez, Laura; Keyes, Aislyn A; Hilding, Austen; McCartney, Michael A; St. Clair, Katie; Johnson, Douglas H; Fieberg, John R; jfieberg@umn.edu; Fieberg, John R
    This repository contains data and R code supporting Ferguson et al. A comparison of survey method efficiency for estimating densities of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha).
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    Data in support of Quantifying the effectiveness of three aquatic invasive species prevention methods
    (2023-05-04) Angell, Nichole R; Campbell, Tim; Brady, Valerie; Bajcz, Alex; Kinsley, Amy; Doll, Adam; Dumke, Josh; Keller, Reuben; Phelps, Nicholas BD; nangell@glc.org; Angell, Nichole R; Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species Research Center (MAISRC)
    Efforts to prevent the spread of aquatic invasive species (AIS) have been widely implemented at many scales to mitigate economic and environmental harms. Boater education, watercraft inspection, and hot water decontamination are popular strategies for prevention of AIS moving through the recreational boating pathway. However, few studies have actually quantified the effectiveness of these strategies under field conditions. We estimated their effectiveness based on the performances of boaters, watercraft inspectors, and hot water decontaminators. Participants (n=144) were recruited at 56 public water access sites in Minnesota and 1 in Wisconsin. Each participant was asked to inspect and remove AIS from a boat staged with macrophytes, dead zebra mussels, and spiny water fleas. The types and amounts of AIS removed were used to estimate the effectiveness of each prevention method. We observed that removal varied by type of AIS, with macrophytes being most commonly removed for all participants. There were also regional (metro and outstate) differences for some species perhaps due to awareness and education. Hot water decontamination was the most effective (83.7%) intervention but was not significantly better at reducing risk of spread than was watercraft inspection (79.2%). Boaters were less effective at AIS removal (56.4%). Our results suggest that watercraft inspection is an effective prevention method for most boats, and that hot water decontamination is an important tool for high-risk boats. However, robust decontamination protocols are difficult to effectively execute. Furthermore, our results provide insights into how to increase boater awareness of often-overlooked locations and help reduce risk when inspectors cannot be present at a public water access site.
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    Data in Support of Widespread declines in walleye recruitment following zebra mussel invasion in Minnesota lakes
    (2023-04-26) Kundel, H; Hansen, Gretchen J A; kunde058@umn.edu; Kundel, H; University of Minnesota Dr. Hansen Research Team
    Invasive zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) alter lake ecosystems and can negatively affect first-year growth of walleye (Sander vitreus), potentially lowering walleye overwinter survival and recruitment success. Zebra mussel effects also vary among lakes, and walleye resilience to the effects of zebra mussels may vary depending on lake characteristics (e.g., depth, clarity) or fish community composition. To test these hypotheses, we used data from 1,438 surveys across 348 lakes collected between 1993 and 2019 to measure walleye recruitment, defined as relative abundance of age-0 walleye in their first fall. We fitted Bayesian hierarchical models to quantify the effects of zebra mussels on walleye recruitment while accounting for the effects of lake temperature, surface area, and water clarity. A before-after-control-impact (BACI)-like design was used to account for potential changes in recruitment due to factors other than zebra mussel invasion. Age-0 walleye recruitment to their first fall was ~41% lower (95% credible interval of 38 - 44%) in lakes containing zebra mussels compared to uninvaded lakes. Invaded lakes had higher recruitment prior to zebra mussel invasion than lakes that remain uninvaded. Conversely, walleye recruitment increased slightly (7% (95% credible interval 2 - 11%)) in lakes without zebra mussels over the same time period. Walleye recruitment was higher in larger lakes and lakes with lower water clarity. Water temperature, as indexed by degree days (base 5 °C), did not affect walleye recruitment. Our results demonstrate negative effects of zebra mussel invasion on walleye population dynamics at a landscape scale.
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    Data for Relative abundance of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in various sediment types in White Bear Lake, Minnesota, June 2021
    (2023-04-26) Horbach, Daniel J; Kozarek, Jessica L; Blinick, Naomi S; Hove, Mark C; Grams, Paul; Kaplinski, Matt; MacGregor, Kelly R; Milliren, Christopher; Riesgraf, Andrew T; jkozarek@umn.edu; Kozarek, Jessica L; St. Anthony Falls Laboratory
    Relative Zebra Mussel abundance on various substrates was surveyed in June 2021 in White Bear Lake, Ramsey County, MN, USA. This survey was designed to create a training dataset to relate acoustic data to substrate and mussel coverage. Transect sites were selected using underwater video to include a range of different substrate types and Zebra Mussel coverage. The final dataset provides a relatively high resolution survey (0.25 sq meter) of percent mussel coverage and substrate type that can inform studies of Zebra Mussel habitat and distribution.
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    Chemotaxis and phonotaxis in a two-choice shuttle tank by bigheaded carps
    (2023-03-09) Culotta, Jackie; Vetter, Brooke, J; Mensinger, Allen, F; Kramer, Cassandra, A; Ervin, Marie, L; culot007@d.umn.edu; Culotta, Jackie; Laboratory of Dr. Allen Mensinger
    Dissolved carbon dioxide avoidance in silver and bighead carps. Additionally, carp were conditioned to associate broadband sound from outboard boat motors (0.06 – 10 kHz, ~150 dB re 1 μPa) with CO2 application (~35,000 ppm). Phonotaxis trials were conducted over one to four weeks in a both a small (80 L) and large (3475 L) two-choice shuttle tank.
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    Data and R code for analysis of mercury concentration and food web differences in walleye and yellow perch from Minnesota lakes with and without invasive zebra mussels, 2019 - 2021
    (2023-02-24) Blinick, Naomi S; Ahrenstorff, Tyler D; Bethke, Bethany J; Fleishman, Abram B; Link, Denver; Nelson, Jenna KR; Rantala, Heidi M; Rude, Claire L; Hansen, Gretchen JA; nsblinick@gmail.com; Blinick, Naomi S; University of Minnesota Department of Fisheries, Wildlife, Conservation Biology; Minnesota Department of Natural Resources
    This dataset contains δ13C and δ15N stable isotope data for 3,765 biological samples (fish, littoral macroinvertebrates, and zooplankton) collected from 21 lakes between 2019 and 2021, collaboratively by the University of Minnesota and the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. In addition, 403 samples have corresponding mercury data, based on laboratory analyses conducted by USGS (Tate et al. 2022).
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    R Code, Data, and Output Supporting: A within-lake occupancy model for starry stonewort, Nitellopsis obtusa, to support early detection and monitoring
    (2022-12-19) Bajcz, Alex W; Glisson, Wesley; Larkin, Daniel J; Fieberg, John; bajcz003@umn.edu; Bajcz, Alex W; Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species Research Center; Department of Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology
    These data and files support the published paper "A within-lake occupancy model for starry stonewort, Nitellopsis obtusa, to support early detection and monitoring" | Scientific Reports (nature.com). It contains both input files and data as well as processed output files from the modeling effort described in the paper, which uses predictor variables to predict both occupancy and detection for within-lake locations by starry stonewort, an invasive aquatic macrophyte. The files being submitted include everything needed to fully replicate and further interpret our results and provide a framework for constructing similar models in similar contexts.
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    Data for Open water dreissenid mussel control projects: lessons learned from a retrospective analysis
    (2022-08-15) Dahlberg, Angelique, D.; Waller, Diane, L.; Hammond, David; Lund, Keegan; Phelps, Nicholas, B. D.; edge0023@umn.edu; Dahlberg, Angelique, D.; Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species Research Center, University of Minnesota
    Dreissenid mussels are one of the most problematic aquatic invasive species (AIS) in North America, causing significant ecological and economic impacts in waterbodies where established. To date, dreissenid mussel control efforts in open water have included physical, biological, and chemical methods. The feasibility of successfully managing or even eradicating dreissenid mussels in lakes is relatively undocumented and unstudied in freshwater management literature. Additionally, control efforts are sometimes stymied by perceptions that the impacts to nontarget species will be unacceptable. The published literature evaluating both these two aspects is limited. Here, we present information on 33 open water dreissenid mussel control projects in 23 lakes across North America. Projects were categorized as rapid response eradication (n=16), established population eradication (n=8), suppression (n=3), or research (n=6).
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    Bythotrephes lake abundances and gear ensnarement abundances on Island Lake and Lake Mille Lacs, Minnesota, in 2017 and 2018
    (2022-07-14) Branstrator, Donn K; Brady, Valerie J; dbranstr@d.umn.edu; Branstrator, Donn K; University of Minnesota Duluth and NRRI
    The repository contains two Excel data files, one based on samples collected from Island Lake Reservoir (Duluth MN) in 2017 (filename: IslandSpiny2017) and the other collected from Lake Mille Lacs (Garrison MN) in 2018 (filename: MilleLacsSpiny2018). Large portions of the analyzed data were first published in the referenced journal article. This article should be read for an overview of the locations where samples were collected and the nature of the data. Briefly, the data are measurements of the numbers and characteristics of spiny water flea (Bythotrephes) ensnared on various types of angling gear and the numbers and characteristics of spiny water flea collected by net tows at the locations and times that the angling gear types were deployed.
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    Data and code in support of: Release of live baitfish by recreational anglers drives fish pathogen introduction risk
    (2022-06-06) McEachran, Margaret C.; Phelps, Nicholas B. D.; Drake, D. Andrew R.; Mladonicky, Janice M.; Picasso, Catalina; thom4412@umn.edu; McEachran, Margaret; University of Minnesota Department of Fisheries, Wildlife and Conservation Biology; University of Minnesota Department of Veterinary Population Medicine; University of Minnesota Gabbert Raptor Center; Fisheries and Oceans Canada Great Lakes Research Laboratory
    This repository contains supplementary information, simulation data, and R computer code to accompany the manuscript titled "Release of live baitfish by recreaional anglers drives fish pathogen introduction risk." The purpose of this project was to quantify the risk of fish pathogen introduction, conceptualized as the number of fish infected with a priority pathogen released in a given year of fishing, under a range of conditions.
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    Complete Data for: Laboratory evaluation of copper-based algaecides for control of the invasive macroalga starry stonewort (Nitellopsis obtusa)
    (2022-05-23) Glisson, Wesley J; Contreras-Rangel, Rafael; Bishop, West M; Larkin, Daniel J; wjglisson@gmail.com; Glisson, Wesley J; Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species Research Center
    Nitellopsis obtusa ([Desvaux] J. Groves [1919]; Characeae), known as starry stonewort, is an invasive macroalga in Laurentian Great Lakes states and provinces in North America. Because of its potential negative impacts on native ecosystems and recreation, N. obtusa has become a high-priority target for management. However, there is a critical lack of foundational information on the efficacy of different algaecides, and concentrations thereof, for N. obtusa control. Additionally, control of N. obtusa bulbils—asexual reproductive structures that are the main pathway for the establishment of new plants—has proven difficult. We tested the efficacy of six commonly used copper-based algaecides, at a series of copper concentrations up to the maximum labeled rate, on N. obtusa thalli (photosynthetic aboveground tissues) and bulbils in controlled laboratory experiments. Bulbils were placed above and below sediment in separate experiments to evaluate whether sediment acted as a barrier to treatment. The data from these experiments are provided and documented here.
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    Supplementary files for an expert-based risk ranking framework for assessing potential pathogens in the live baitfish trade
    (2022-05-06) McEachran, Margaret C.; Travis, Dominic A.; Phelps, Nicholas B. D.; Sampedro, Fernando; thom4412@umn.edu; McEachran, Margaret C.; Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species Research Center
    The purpose of this study was to develop a “hazard identification” and ranking tool to identify the pathogens that pose the highest risk to wild fish from the release of live baitfish by recreational anglers in freshwater systems. We developed a screening protocol and semi-quantitative stochastic risk ranking framework by combining published data with expert elicitation (n=25) and applied the framework to identify high-priority pathogens for the bait supply in Minnesota, USA. Normalized scores were developed for seven risk criteria (likelihood of transfer, prevalence in bait supply, likelihood of colonization, current distribution, economic impact if established, ecological impact if established, and host species) to characterize a pathogen’s ability to persist in the bait supply and cause impacts to wild fish species of concern. Of an initial list of 33, 15 potential pathogens met the criteria for inclusion and were evaluated using the semi-quantitative framework. The generalist macroparasite Schizocotyle acheilognathi was identified as presenting highest overall threat to wild Minnesota fish, followed by the microsporidian Ovipleistophora ovariae, and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus. Our findings contribute to the development of risk-based prevention and surveillance methods in support of front-line managers charged with maintaining both the aquatic sporting industry and sustainable, healthy natural resources in Minnesota. In addition, the ranking framework provides a standardized conceptual framework for prioritizing management as novel disease needs emerge.
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    Survey of anglers who had a fishing license in the 2018-2019 fishing season
    (2022-03-28) McEachran, Margaret C.; Hofelich Mohr, Alicia; Lindsay, Thomas; Phelps, Nicholas; Fulton, David; phelp083@umn.edu; Phelps, Nicholas; University of Minnesota Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species Research Center; University of Minnesota Department of Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology; University of Minnesota Liberal Arts Technology and Innovation Services
    This is a dataset containing responses to a 2019 mailed paper survey of recreational anglers in Minnesota, USA. The release of live baitfish by anglers has been identified as a high-risk pathway for aquatic invasive species due to the potential for invasive fish, invertebrates, or pathogens to be release simultaneously with the baitfish. Consequently, the release of live baitfish is illegal in many jurisdictions, but little is known about compliance rates or motivations for illegal release. To assess the incidence of live baitfish release, we administered a mailed survey to a random sample of anglers who held a 2018-2019 annual fishing license and received 681 responses. To mitigate potential recall bias, we also administered 345 intercept surveys at waterbody access sites around the state asking anglers about the current day’s behaviors. Four hundred and eighty-one (72%) of the mailed survey respondents reported that they used live baitfish and of those, 99 (20%) reported that they release their leftover live baitfish into the water at least some of the time. Of the anglers surveyed at waterbody access sites, 59 (19%) were using live baitfish on the day they were surveyed and of those, 11 (18%) released their leftover baitfish into the water. The reasons provided for release included convenience and a misperception that released baitfish benefit the recipient ecosystem. Given the many millions of fishing trips that occur every year, the current rate of illegal baitfish release results in many chances for invasive species introduction. However, there is also significant opportunity for management interventions aimed at changing perceptions and providing convenient disposal alternatives to illegal release to reduce the risk presented by this pathway. This data is being released in accordance with the terms of our funding and to facilitate review of the paper prior to publication.
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    An ensonified bubble curtain blocks 4 species of invasive carp in a laboratory flume but also deters other fish, while sound alone is less effective overall and does not target carp
    (2022-03-18) Feely, Jane; Sorensen, Peter; feely033@umn.edu; Feely, Jane; University of Minnesota - Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species Research Center
    Four species of invasive carp from Asia are advancing up the Mississippi River through its locks and dams (LDs) and threatening to profoundly alter its ecosystems. It has been hypothesized that sensory stimuli could be projected into locks to block carp movement through LDs. Sound has garnered special attention because carp are members of Ostariophysi, a group of fish with an exceptional sense of hearing. Further, it has been found that a broadband cyclic sound is especially effective at blocking bighead and common carp and that when projected into an air curtain to create an ensonified bubble curtain (EBC), blockage rates for these species exceed 90%. However, whether an EBC might especially effective at blocking all carps, and what its effects might be on native non-ostariphysians and why, has not been addressed. To answer these questions, this study examined the responses of 10 fishes including 4 invasive carps (common, bighead, silver, grass), 2 native Ostariophysi (channel catfish, golden shiners), and 4 native non-ostariophysians (rainbow trout, largemouth bass, bluegill sunfish, lake sturgeon) in a darkened laboratory flume while either a cyclic sound was played on its own, or projected into an air curtain. The EBC blocked all 4 carps 92-97% of the time without habituation, but 5 native fish were also partially blocked. In contrast, sound alone only blocked 2 carps and affected the other fishes to varying extents. An EBC appears uniquely well-suited to blocking carp invasions if native fish movement is a secondary concern.