Six response/scoring methods for
tests are analyzed with respect to expected item
scores under various levels of information and misinformation.
It is shown that misinformation always
and necessarily results in expected item scores
lower than those associated with complete ignorance.
Moreover, it is shown that some response/
scoring methods penalize all conditions of
misinformation equally, and others have varying
penalties according to the number of wrong choices
the misinformed examinee has categorized with the
correct choice. One method exacts the greatest penalty
when a specific wrong choice is believed correct
; two other methods provide the maximum penalty
when the examinee is confident only that the
correct choice is incorrect. Partial information is
shown to yield substantially different expected item
scores from one method to another. Guessing is analyzed
under the assumption that examinees guess
whenever it is advantageous to do so under the
scoring method used and that these conditions
would be made clear to the examinee. Additional
guessing is shown to have no effect on expected
item scores in some cases, though in others it is
shown to lower the expected item score. These outcomes
are discussed with respect to validity and
reliability of resulting total scores and also with respect
to test content and examinee characteristics.
Frary, Robert B. (1980). The effect of misinformation, partial information, and guessing on expected multiple-choice test item scores. Applied Psychological Measurement, 4, 79-90. doi:10.1177/014662168000400109
Frary, Robert B..
The effect of misinformation, partial information, and guessing on expected multiple-choice test item scores.
Retrieved from the University of Minnesota Digital Conservancy,
Content distributed via the University of Minnesota's Digital Conservancy may be subject to additional license and use restrictions applied by the depositor.