Grouping behavior in fish is a well‐understood phenomenon present in numerous species. Habitat and predation risk are two major influences on this behavior and
our experiment was designed to quantify the how shoaling behavior in Pimephales
promelas differed with an increase in complexity of environment and predation risk.
We found that shoaling behavior was not different when habitat complexity
increased or in the presence of a natural predator (Perca flavescens). While both of
these factors are expected to affect grouping behaviors we were unable to
quantitatively see a difference in the distances between individuals and the shoal
Predation Risk and Habitat Complexity: Shoaling Behavioral Changes in Pimephales Promelas.
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