True experimental designs (Designs 4, 5, and 6 of
Campbell & Stanley, 1963) are thought to provide
internally valid results. This paper describes five
studies involving the evaluation of various treatment
interventions and identifies a source of internal
invalidity when self-report measures are used in
a Pretest-Posttest manner. An alternative approach
(Retrospective Pretest-Posttest design) to measuring
change is suggested, and data comparing its accuracy
with the traditional Pretest-Posttest design
in measuring treatment effects is presented. Finally,
the implications of these findings for evaluation research
using self-report instruments and the
strengths and limitations of retrospective measures
Howard, George S & et al. (1979). Internal invalidity in pretest-posttest self-report evaluations and a re-evaluation of retrospective pretests. Applied Psychological Measurement, 3, 1-23. doi:10.1177/014662167900300101
Howard, George S.; Ralph, Kenneth M.; Gulanick, Nancy A.; Maxwell, Scott E.; Nance, Don W.; Gerber, Sterling K..
Internal invalidity in pretest-posttest self-report evaluations and a re-evaluation of retrospective pretests..
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