The Song Sparrow is a widespread north American songbird that is preyed upon by the Cooper’s Hawk and is subject to nest parasitism by the Brown-Headed Cowbird. This study uses the response of twelve Song Sparrows, located around Itasca State Park, in terms of the frequencies of alarm call and song to investigate which threat is greater to this species in late June. The results show that the Song Sparrows do not consider the cowbird as a threat, but they certainly do consider the Cooper’s Hawk a threat with greatly suppressed song frequency.
Campillo, Luke; Claus, Aaron.
Contrasting Response to Predator and Brood Parasite Signals in the Song Sparrow (melospiza melodia).
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