Advertisers often assume that ads that are encountered but not explicitly processed either have no effect, or a positive effect due to mere exposure. However, recent research in visual neuroscience has shown that when a non-target object is exposed, it can lead to negative rather than positive affective ratings for that object. Two studies reported here show that the difference in outcome may depend on one's goal at time of ad exposure. When engaged in exploratory search, a mere exposure effect is obtained. Conversely, goal-driven attention causes ad devaluation. Outcomes in terms of affective evaluation as well as future attention for the exposed ads are tested. Effects of exposure are also found for individual differences in attentional control. Additionally, implications for current advertising avoidance models are discussed.
University of Minnesota Ph. D. dissertation. December 2009. Major: Mass Communication. Advisor: Ronald J. Faber. 1 computer file (PDF); vi, 160 pages.
Duff, Brittany Rebecca-Leigh.
The eye of the beholder: affective and attentional outcomes of selective attention to advertising ..
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