It was the purpose of this study to examine the relationships among American Indian Vietnam combat veterans' childhood experiences: extra-cultural placement and having a veteran primary care giver, and features and symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Participants were 150 American Indian Vietnam combat veterans from the Midwest.
This study examined scores from two dependent measures: Traumatic Attachment Belief Scale (TABS) and the Mississippi Combat PTSD Scale-Short Form (M-PTSD Short Form). The two independent measures were: veterans who experienced extra-cultural placement or those who did not experience extra-cultural placement, and veterans who had a veteran primary care giver as a child or who did not have a veteran primary care giver as a child.
Research findings indicated that veterans who experienced extra-cultural placement were significantly more likely to have experienced incarceration and homelessness. There were no significant differences in alcohol and drug treatment between those who had experienced extra-cultural placement and those who had not. There were no significant differences found if participants had a veteran primary care giver or not in homelessness or treatment for alcohol or drug abuse. Those who had a veteran primary care giver were found to be significantly more likely to experience incarceration than those who did not. Research findings also showed that participants who experienced actual or threatened homelessness were also more likely to experience incarceration and alcohol or drug treatment. The impact of trauma on beliefs about others' safety was significantly greater than the impact of trauma on beliefs about self-safety, trust of others or of self-esteem toward others or toward self, and of intimacy with self or others. Other differences in these constructs were found. Significant differences were not found in the impact of trauma on features and symptoms of PTSD as a function of the absence of extra-cultural placement or extra-cultural placement or having a non-veteran or veteran primary care giver. Finally, there were significant associations between the impact of trauma on beliefs about self and others, features and symptoms of PTSD, no extra-cultural placement/extra-cultural placement, and having a non veteran or veteran primary care giver.
University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation. December 2008. Major: Educational Psychology. Advisor: Sherri Turner, PhD. 1 computer file (PDF); x, 119 pages; appendices A-F.
Yaekel-Black Elk, Julie Kay.
American Indian Vietnam combat veterans: how out-of-home placement and having a veteran primary care giver are associated with features and symptoms of trauma..
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