Frontenac (Vitis spp. MN 1047) is a new, cold-hardy red wine grape that is
currently the most-planted grape cultivar in much of the Upper Midwest. Though
typically described as having notes of cherry, black currant and spice, the volatile
characteristics of Frontenac wine have not been investigated, and no structured evaluation
of common sensory characteristics has been performed. To develop a standard set of
aroma descriptors that characterize red Frontenac table wines, descriptive analysis was
performed on six products. Thirteen sensory descriptors were developed and defined with
reference standards; correlation plots indicated that attributes were discrete and not
redundant. All 13 attribute descriptors were useful for describing and/or distinguishing
between red Frontenac table wines.
In order to determine odor active compounds, eight Frontenac table wines were
evaluated using stirbar sorptive extraction (SBSE) combined with concurrent gas
chromatography-olfactometry/ mass spectrometry (GCO/MS). Twenty-four volatiles
perceived by panelists were identified via mass spectra comparison, and included five
alcohols, fourteen esters, one lactone, two acids and two volatile phenols. Twenty-four of
these were confirmed with LRI comparisons in separate GC/MS analyses using a C6 to
C16 carbon ladder, and 23 were quantified in runs using a known concentration of internal
standard. Analyses of wines produced from V. riparia clone #89, a parent of Frontenac,
identified 16 volatiles common to Frontenac wines. Tentative identification, via GC/MS,
of Frontenac juice with two days of skin contact suggested that four volatiles found in the
wine may originate in the fruit.
University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation. September 2008. Major: Food science.Advisor: Gary A. Reineccius. 1 computer file (PDF); viii, 100 pages.
Mansfield, Anna Katharine.
Characterization of key volatile compounds in red table wines produced from frontenac grapes (Vitis spp.).
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