The paper reviews the effects of by-products: wood ash, biosolids (sewage sludge), and papermill residuals (papermill sludge) on tree growth and forest
ecosystems and examines the effects of soils amended with by-products on foliar metal (e.g., Ni,
Cr, Cd) and nutrient concentrations, soil chemical and physical properties, metal and nutrient
leaching, runoff, and general effects on microbes, insects, flora and fauna.
Research supported by the University of Minnesota’s College of Natural Resources, the Minnesota Agricultural
Experiment Station, and the Minnesota Legislature ML 1999, Chap. 231, Sec. 16, Subd. 10(g) as recommended by the Legislative Commission on Minnesota Resources.
Matysik, Molly A.; Gilmore, Daniel W.; Mozaffari, Morteza; Rosen, Carl J.; Halbach, Thomas R..
Application of wood ash, biosolids, and papermill residuals to forest soils : a review of the literature..
University of Minnesota.
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