Proficiency in mathematics across the United States has become an area of concern as performance on state accountability tests continues to demonstrate that less than 50% of students in 4th and 8th grade are proficient in mathematics (NCES, 2013). With such large numbers of students lacking proficiency in mathematics, systematic interventions that target many students need to be utilized to intervene when large numbers of students are demonstrating limited proficiency. The current study implemented a classwide intervention with 133 third- and fourth-grade students to increase proficiency in multiplication. Students were randomly assigned to the cognitive strategy (CSI), timed drill (TD), or a control condition. The intervention occurred for 15 school day sessions for 30 minutes. Results indicated that students in the timed drill (TD) condition improved on measures of basic multiplication and near transfer measures of division fluency, and students in the CSI condition improved on a measure of multiplication word problem solving. Findings from this study indicate that classwide dyad interventions can be used to help classrooms with large numbers of students struggling with basic multiplication. Future research is needed to determine what interventions should continue for those students not making adequate progress in tier 1 interventions, but given the promising data found here and the pressing need for increased student mathematics proficiency, additional research seems warranted. Implications for research and practice, limitations, and future directions are discussed.
University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation. May 2016. Major: Educational Psychology. Advisors: Matthew Burns, Theodore Christ. 1 computer file (PDF); vii, 128 pages.
The Comparative Effects of Dyad Mathematics Interventions on Improving Multiplication Proficiency.
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