Cultural socialization, or education regarding ethnicity and race, was examined in transracial, transnational adoptive families. This longitudinal, multi-informant study represented a seven-year follow-up with adopted Korean American adolescents (ages 13-20) and their adoptive parents (N = 116). The study examined changes in parental cultural socialization over time, the longitudinal relationship of parental cultural socialization on peer cultural socialization, and the independent and collective relationships of parental and peer cultural socialization practices on adolescent ethnic identity and discrimination. Parents reported Time 1 and Time 2 parental cultural socialization; adoptees reported Time 2 parental cultural socialization, Time 2 peer cultural socialization, Time 2 ethnic identity, and Time 2 discrimination. Cultural socialization was examined via ethnic and racial socialization. Results indicated parent-reports of parental ethnic socialization decreased and racial socialization increased between childhood and adolescence. Parents also reported higher levels of parental ethnic and racial socialization than did adolescents at Time 2. Contrary to hypothesis, parental ethnic socialization in childhood was negatively associated with adolescent ethnic identity, but parental ethnic socialization in adolescence was positively associated with adolescent ethnic identity. With regards to discrimination, parental ethnic socialization in childhood and adolescence were both positively associated with perceived discrimination. Last, peer racial socialization in adolescence mediated the association between parental racial socialization in childhood and ethnic identity, as well as the association between parental racial socialization and perceived discrimination. The study highlights the racial and ethnic experiences of transracial, transnational adopted individuals, and illustrates the importance of longitudinal and multi-informant methodology.
University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation. August 20152015. Major: Psychology. Advisor: Richard Lee. 1 computer file (PDF); 92 pages.
Cultural socialization in transracial, transnational adoptive families: A seven-year follow-up.
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