The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM, 2000) calls for “high quality mathematics instruction for all students”. This declaration, along with the present achievement gap, has driven many innovations in mathematics teaching and curriculum in the past 15 years, including the Flipped Classroom model. Currently, this model is being implemented at all levels of schooling and academic areas, yet there is very little research as to its effectiveness (Bishop & Verlager, 2013). This model, as enacted in this study, has the students watch a video lecture at home and then come to class and do the traditional homework during the class period. This study attempts to expand this body of research by looking at the Flipped Classroom model as it is implemented in fifth grade mathematics classrooms. This study uses a convergent concurrent mixed methods design to develop an understanding of the impact that this model of instruction has on elementary students. The participants were 112 fifth grade students from four classrooms in a Midwestern suburban school district. Qualitative data was collected through class room observations, and student and teacher interviews over the course of two units of instruction on decimals and fractions. Quantitative data was collected from two unit posttests and an attitude survey at the end of the study. The NCTM Mathematics Practices (NCTM, 2014) were used as a framework to analyze the teaching practices and research on students’ conceptual understanding of decimals and fractions formed the basis for understanding student thinking during the interviews. The qualitative data suggests that this model, enacted in this study, strongly encourages the use of rules and procedures, not always accurately, to the detriment of developing conceptual understanding. The quantitative data shows that many students did appear to meet the state standards in the area of decimals while many more did not in the area of fractions. Of equal concern is that low achieving students had less access to the videos at home and more frequently found them frustrating or confusing. Continued research on teaching practices and equity issues within the Flipped Classroom model would help further address these issues.
University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation. May 2015. Major: Education, Curriculum and Instruction. Advisor: Kathleen Cramer. 1 computer file (PDF); 142 pages.
The Impact of the Flipped Classroom Model of Instruction on Fifth Grade Mathematics Students.
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