The level of regulation that impacts healthcare delivery in the United States suggests the need for healthcare providers to participate in the formation and implementation of health policies. Advancing health policies can most effectively be accomplished through various forms of political advocacy. To date, little research has been conducted to measure the level of involvement pharmacists take in political advocacy. The study's purpose was to develop and test a survey that measured pharmacists' level of involvement in political advocacy and factors that impact their involvement. To accomplish this, a survey was developed using The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The initial survey was refined through a series of semi-structured interviews. Participants involved in the interview process included practicing pharmacists, research experts, and political advocacy experts. The revised survey was used to survey a national sample of practicing pharmacists. The overall response rate was 10.3%, which resulted in 103 usable responses for analysis. Statistical analysis included assessing the survey items for reliability and validity and multiple regression analyses. Reliability statistics were used to develop an ideal item list and regression analysis was used to measure the appropriateness of The TPB. Reliability statistics suggested the elimination of a total of 22 of the 68 items. Factor analysis was not used to further evaluate the item list due to the low number of responses and potential high number of factors. Results of the multiple regression analysis suggested the model incorporating all items related to The TPB was appropriate (adjusted R-squared = 0.361), as well as the ideal item only model (adjusted R-squared = 0.300). In addition, each of the models' demonstrated that the construct attitude (p<0.001) predicted involvement in political advocacy. Using the ideal item only model, the construct of perceived behavioral control (p=0.015) also demonstrated a relationship. This study provided us with an initial evaluation of pharmacists' involvement in political advocacy. The results of the study suggested that The TPB does appear to have utility in the topic; however, the low number of participants limits generalizability. Additional studies are needed to further evaluate the topic.
University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation. February 2014. Major: Social and Administrative Pharmacy. Advisors: Ronald Hadsall, Marcia Worley. 1 computer file (PDF); xii, 170 pages, appendix p. 140-170.
Tomaszewski, Daniel Mark.
Using the theory of planned behavior to measure pharmacists' engagement in political advocacy and determine factors impacting their engagement.
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