These Working Papers were produced for the Forestry For Sustainable Development (FFSD) Program at the University of Minnesota, 1988-1993. The purpose of these Working papers is to simulate discussion among individuals working in the field of interest. Objectives of the FFSD Program were to: Improve the availability and usefulness of existing technical knowledge related to forestry for sustainable development. Improve the policy and organizational environment to encourage application of sustainability strategies. The focus of the program was on social forestry and related strategies within a watershed management framework as an integrating mechanism for moving toward sustainability in land use and in natural resource-based development projects. It involved an interdisciplinary group of faculty from the University of Minnesota, and associates at the University of Arizona, Yale University, Oxford University, the Inter-American Development Bank, and other development groups. The FFSD Program was part of the University of Minnesota's Center for Natural Resource Policy and Management in the College of Natural Resources. It was supported by a grant from The Pew Charitable Trusts; the University of Minnesota's College of Natural Resources and Department of Forest Resources; Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station under Project 42-49 of the McIntire-Stennis Cooperative Froestry Research Program; and by contributions from other organizations. The views, interpretations, and any errors are those of the author(s) and should not be attributed to The Pew Charitable Trusts, their respective institutions, the United States Government, or anyone acting in their behalf.