The goal of this research is to advance our understanding of atmospheric boundary layer processes over heterogeneous landscapes and complex terrain. The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is a relatively thin (∼ 1 km) turbulent layer of air near the earth's surface, in which most human activities and engineered systems are concentrated. Its dynamics are crucially important for biosphere-atmosphere couplings and for global atmospheric dynamics, with significant implications on our ability to predict and mitigate adverse impacts of land use and climate change. In models of the ABL, land surface heterogeneity is typically represented, in the context of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, as changes in aerodynamic roughness length and surface heat and moisture fluxes. However, many real landscapes are more complex, often leading to massive boundary layer separation and wake turbulence, for which standard models fail. Trees, building clusters, and steep topography produce extensive wake regions currently not accounted for in models of the ABL. Wind turbines and wind farms also generate wakes that combine in complex ways to modify the ABL. Wind farms are covering an increasingly significant area of the globe and the effects of large wind farms must be included in regional and global scale models. Research presented in this thesis demonstrates that wakes caused by landscape heterogeneity must be included in flux parameterizations for momentum, heat, and mass (water vapor and trace gases, e.g. CO<sub>2</sub> and CH<sub>4</sub>) in ABL simulation and prediction models in order to accurately represent land-atmosphere interactions. Accurate representation of these processes is crucial for the predictions of weather, air quality, lake processes, and ecosystems response to climate change. Objectives of the research reported in this thesis are: 1) to investigate turbulent boundary layer adjustment, turbulent transport and scalar flux in wind farms of varying configurations and develop an improved modeling framework for wind farm - atmosphere interaction, 2) to determine how heterogeneous patches of forest affect the structure of the ABL and its interactions with clearings and water bodies, 3) to investigate how landscape heterogeneity, including wakes, may be parameterized in regional-scale weather and climate models to improve the representation of surface fluxes, e.g. from lakes/wetlands and forest clearings. To achieve these objectives, this research employs an interdisciplinary strategy, utilizing concepts and methods from fluid mechanics, micrometeorology, ecosystem ecology and environmental sciences, and combines laboratory and field experiments. In particular, a) wind tunnel experiments of flow through and over model wind farms and model forest canopies were used to improve our fundamental understanding of how wakes affect land-atmosphere coupling, including surface fluxes, after wind farm installation and for heterogeneous landscapes of canopies and clearings or lakes, and b) extensive field studies over lakes and wetlands were undertaken to study the effects of wakes downwind of forest canopies and the effect of wind sheltering on lake stratification dynamics and gas fluxes. These experiments were also used to improve and validate numerical simulation techniques for the atmospheric boundary layer, specifically the large eddy simulation technique, which is used to simulate flow in wind farms and flow over heterogeneous terrain.