Despite efforts to reduce water pollution, water resource managers have yet to find a solution to the problem of non-point sources: pollution from diffusely distributed urban and rural land use practices. Current management approaches to NPS pollution are not regulatory and thus require voluntary human action. Changing human behavior, though, is a challenging task. Any intervention aimed at altering behavior should be based on an understanding of the determinants of behavior. Although varying in their theoretical and methodological approaches, researchers have focused on internal motivators such as values, attitudes, beliefs and norms as a basis to understand pro-environmental behavior. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the factors that influence pro-environmental norms and behaviors in the context of water resource management. To this end, an integrated moral obligation model (MOM) was developed to investigate the relationship between environmental and cultural values, a series of activators, personal norm and behavior. The specific research objectives of this dissertation are to i) determine the factors that activate landowners' personal norms to protect water resources, and ii) determine the influence of activators and personal norm on landowners' civic engagement in water resource issues. Data were collected through a self-administered survey of a random sample of landowners from three Minnesota watersheds: Sand Creek, Vermillion River and Cannon River watersheds. Latent variable structural equation modeling was used to understand the hypothesized relationships between values, beliefs, norms and behavior. Findings provide support for MOM as a useful theoretical basis to understand norms and behaviors related to water resource management. Structural equation modeling revealed that personal norms to act influence pro-environmental behavior. While personal norms are rooted in collectivistic and altruistic-biospheric values, beliefs about consequences of pollution, local responsibility, social pressure to take action and ability to act fuel personal norms. Overall, findings suggest that intervention strategies are likely to be successful if landowners perceive water resource protection as a moral issue and a collective responsibility of local landowners. Further, findings suggest that conservation programs must provide incentives that address real or perceived barriers.