Hypersonic flows involve strong thermal and chemical nonequilibrium due to steep gradients in gas properties in the shock layer, wake, and next to vehicle surfaces. Accurate simulation of hypersonic nonequilibrium flows requires consideration of the molecular nature of the gas including internal energy excitation (translational, rotational, and vibrational energy modes) as well as chemical reaction processes such as dissociation. Both continuum and particle simulation methods are available to simulate such complex flow phenomena. Specifically, the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is widely used to model such complex nonequilibrium phenomena within a particle-based numerical method. This thesis describes in detail how the different types of DSMC thermochemical models should be implemented in a rigorous and consistent manner. In the process, new algorithms are developed including a new framework for phenomenological models able to incorporate results from computational chemistry. Using this framework, a new DSMC model for rotational energy exchange is constructed. General algorithms are developed for the various types of methods that inherently satisfy microscopic reversibility, detailed balance, and equipartition of energy in equilibrium. Furthermore, a new framework for developing rovibrational state-to-state DSMC collision models is proposed, and a vibrational state-to-state model is developed along the course. The overall result of this thesis is a rigorous and consistent approach to bridge molecular physics and computational chemistry through stochastic molecular simulation to continuum models for gases in strong thermochemical nonequilibrium.
University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation. August 2013. Major: Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics. Advisor: Thomas E. Schwartzentruber. 1 computer file (PDF); ix, 202 pages, appendix A.
Consistent modeling of hypersonic nonequilibrium flows using direct simulation Monte Carlo.
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