PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine ) is one of the most abundant heterocylic aromatic amines (HAA), which are dietary procarcinogens in over-cooked meat. Some phase I biotransformation enzymes activate several HAA, including PhIP, while specific phase II enzymes can detoxify PhIP and other HAAs. Cruciferous vegetables induce phase I and phase II enzymes, while apiaceous vegetables inhibit phase I enzymes; but it's unknown if their combined intake acts synergistically on carcinogen metabolism. We evaluated the effects of cruciferous and apiaceous vegetables, and their respective phytochemicals, either alone or combined, on prostate and pancreatic PhIP-DNA adducts in rats. For prostate, PhIP-DNA adducts were reduced by 1-week intake of apiaceous vegetables (by 33%, P < 0.05), PEITC/I3C (by 45%, P < .001), and the combination of PEITC/I3C + furanocoumarins (30% reduction, P < .01). There were no effects in pancreas. Our results suggest fresh vegetables and phytochemicals modulate biotransformation enzymes and may influence cancer risk.
University of Minnesota M.S. thesis. May 2013. Major: Nutrition. Advisor: Sabrina P. Trudo. 1 computer file (PDF); viii, 131 pages, appendices A-B.
Warnert, Marissa A..
Modulation of prostate and pancreatic PhIP-DNA adducts by consumption of cruciferous and apiaceous vegetables in male wistar rats.
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