The expansion of residential development along Minnesota lakeshores has dramatically altered littoral habitat and the fish communities it supports. Previous studies have linked lakeshore development to reductions in abundance of aquatic vegetation and coarse woody structure; however, few studies have quantified the specific influence of docks on aquatic habitat structure. We assessed coarse woody structure and three measures of macrophyte abundance across three scales of development in 11 Minnesota lakes, using docks as an index of development. All four habitat components were influenced by distance to the nearest dock structure. Site-level abundance of coarse woody structure and presence of emergent species were significantly and negatively related to lake-wide dock density, indicating that these habitat components are particularly vulnerable to development. These findings suggest that management of lake fish habitat should address both local and lake-wide scales of development. In addition, dock size restrictions could minimize impacts to critical habitat structure.