This study measured outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in a low- and a nearby middle-income neighborhood in Bangalore, India. Each neighborhood included two sampling locations: near and not-near a major roadway. One-minute mean concentrations were recorded for 168 days during September 2008 - May 2009 using a nephelometer (TSI DustTrak). Wind speed and direction were also measured, as well as PM2.5 concentration as a function of distance from roadway. Mean concentrations are 21-46% higher in the low- than in the middle-income neighborhood (64 μg m-3 versus 53 μg m-3 [neighborhood median]). In the middle-income neighborhood, median concentrations are higher near roadway than not-near roadway (56 μg m-3 versus 50 μg m-3); in the low-income neighborhood, the reverse holds (68 μg m-3 near roadway, 74 μg m-3 not-near roadway), likely because of within-neighborhood residential emissions (e.g., cooking; trash combustion). These concentrations exceed long-term US EPA and WHO standards (15 μg m-3 and 10 μg m-3, respectively). A moving-average subtraction method used to infer local- versus urban-scale emissions confirms that local emissions are greater in the low-income neighborhood than in the middle-income neighborhood; however, relative contributions from local sources vary by time-of-day. Real-time relative humidity correction factors are important for accurately interpreting real-time nephelometer data.
University of Minnesota M.S. thesis. September 2012. Major: Civil Engineering. Advisor: Dr. Julian Marshall. 1 computer file (PDF); vi, 64 pages, appendix:Literature Review of Outdoor Air Quality in the Developing World.
Both, Adam Frank.
PM2.5 concentrations in low- and middle-income neighborhoods in Bangalore, India.
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