Multi-antenna systems allow for higher communication rates without substantial increase
in hardware and power. This has led to significant interest in incorporating
multi-antenna communication into upcoming wireless standards, like the 802.11n.
This thesis focuses on CMOS circuits and architectures for multi-antenna wireless
communication systems. Specifically, we will propose solutions for a special class of
multi-antenna systems called phased-array systems. The most important circuit block
in a phased-array system is the phase-shifter. Traditional phased-array systems, mostly
military radars, used external ferrite phase-shifters for microwave applications, which
were wide-band, almost noiseless, highly linear and had high power-handling capability,
but were bulky. Commercial wireless systems rely on portability and low-power,
with the result that CMOS is the technology of choice and most products are fully
integrated on a single-chip. On-chip CMOS phase-shifters have not been able to match
the performance of ferrite phase-shifters. Consequently, CMOS-based phased-array systems
have relied on a modified architecture known as the LO-phase shifting architecture
to deliver comparable performance. In this work, we first present two novel schemes
for the phase-generation network for the LO-phase-shifting architecture, based on a
phenomenon called injection-locking. The injection-locked oscillator (ILO) is used as
a phase-shifter. The two schemes are integrated into a dual-mode architecture for a
phased-array receiver providing us with the advantages of both. The prototype, operating
at 2.4-GHz, is fabricated in a 0.13-μm CMOS technology. It requires lower power
and area compared to previous state-of-the-art designs. Measurement results from this
prototype show excellent agreement with the theoretical performance predicted for the
phased-array receiver. Both architectures have also been extended to two-dimensional phased-array systems.
A majority of the commercial phased-array applications are focused on the mm-wave
regime. We have verified that our architecture can operate at these frequencies as well.
A 24-GHz two-channel CMOS phased-array receiver has been designed and fabricated
in 0.13-μm BiCMOS technology. In this architecture, the injection-locked oscillator not
only acts as a phase-shifter and buffer, but also as a frequency tripler. Because of this
multi-functionality of the ILO, the overall area and power of this receiver are better
than other state-of-the-art designs. Since the LO distribution network now operates
at one-third the LO frequency, it allows for further power savings in the distribution
Finally, a beam-forming receiver based on the Fast-Fourier Transform (FFT) is
presented. In this architecture, the beam-forming operations are performed in the baseband
processing section. Owing to a low-power FFT architecture and the inherent
properties of the FFT, multiple beams can be created at closely-spaced frequencies.
This allows the use of narrow-band transmitter and receiver architectures for the RF
section. A two-channel receiver based on this architecture has been designed in a 65-nm
In addition, to these different receiver architectures, a novel 24-GHz UWB-LNA is
presented. The LNA, which has been integrated as part of a UWB receiver, is presented
in this thesis. However, the overall UWB receiver design is not presented here.