A fully interactive PC-based STISIM driving simulator was used to test the effectiveness of Intelligent Lane
Control Signals (ILCS). The participants were 160 licensed drivers from four age groups: 18-24, 32-47, 55-65, and
70+ years of age. Each participant drove three times in a counterbalanced order. In each trial, after driving five
miles in the center lane of a six-lane highway where the speed limit was 65 mph, they encountered five sets of
ILCSs that occurred at half-mile intervals. These ILCSs presented (1) 45-mph speed limit messages; (2) 35-mph
speed limit messages; (3) a yellow lane closure warning; (4) one of three merge messages that used a diagonal
arrow, or words, or dynamic chevrons to indicate that drivers should move from the center lane; (5) a red lane
Analysis of lane position data showed that the diagonal arrow merge sign was the most effective; participants
moved from the center lane 266 feet before reaching the diagonal arrow merge sign, 123 feet before reaching the
dynamic arrow merge sign, and 54 feet before the merge sign with words.
Analysis of driving speed data indicated that the speed limit signs were effective. Before the 45-mile speed limit
was visible, participants drove at 63 mph. When the 45-mph speed limit was visible, they reduced speed by
approximately 10 mph. Then on the approach to the 35-mph speed limit, they reduced speed by a further 14
mph—on average, they were driving at 38.7 mph shortly after passing the 35-mph speed limit.
Center for Design in Health, College of Design, University of Minnesota
Harder, Kathleen A.; Bloomfield, John R..
Investigating the Effectiveness of Intelligent Lane Control Signals on Driver Behavior.
Minnesota Department of Transportation.
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