Phosphorus is generally considered to be a major growth limiting macro nutrient in
aquatic ecosystems (Jorgensen, 1983; Ishikawa et al., 1989; Fox, 1993). Cultural
eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems due to anthropogenic sources of phosphorus is
well documented (Wetzel, 2001; Lampert and Sommer, 1997; Stumm and Morgan, 1996;
Schindler 1974). Studies have shown that in some situations eutrophication can continue
even after external anthropogenic sources of phospholUs have stopped (Hu et al., 2001;
Lemmin and Imboden, 1987). This has led researchers to examine other causes of
eutrophication, including the significance of internal loading of phosphorus released from
the sediments (Petticrew and Arocena, 2001; Blais and Kalff, 1995).
A history of nuisance algal blooms, fluctuating phosphorus concentrations and
trophic level values has been documented in Jessie Lake (Reed and Watkins 1999).
Because of this erratic history there is a concern that Jessie Lake is approaching a
hypereutrophic state. During the last decade, phospholUs concentration has exhibited an
increase of 135% over 6 years from 24 ug/L in 1992 to 57.3 ug/L in 1998 (Reed and
Watkins, 1999), placing Jessie Lake in the 90th percentile of total phosphorus
concentration in its eco-region (Heiskary and Wilson, 1988). The Carlson Trophic Status
evaluated in terms of Secchi disc, phospholUs, and chlorophyll-a concentrations
suggested that Jessie Lake ranged in the mesotrophic class in 1992 and in the eutrophic
class in 1998 (Redd and Watkins, 1999). The increasing deterioration of water quality in
the lake has impacted its ecological conditions, biological species, recreation potential
and propeliy value. During the summer of 1998 a fish kill occurred due to the low
oxygen levels within the lake.
The Clean Water Palinership is a two-phase program that was developed to address
water quality and pollution problems in Mhmesota (MPCA, 1995). This program allows
local agencies and groups to receive state funding and specialized assistance from state
experts. The phases are awarded separately with the first phase addressing resource
investigation, a diagnostic study. and implementation plall, and the second phase
implementing best management practices developed from the Phase I plan. A Phase I
grant application for Jessie Lake was submitted in 1999 and grallted by the Minnesota
Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). Prior to the initiation of Phase I, the Itasca Soil alld
Water Conservation District (ISWCD) had obtained water quality measurements in 1998
alld 1999, which became the foundation for Phase I sampling. Phase I was initiated in the
year 2000 and is a cooperative project that includes: ISWCD, Chippewa National Forest
(CNF), Mimlesota Department of Natural Resources (MNDNR), MPCA, the Jessie Lake
Watershed Association (JLWA), University of Minnesota, St. Anthony Falls Laboratory
(SAFL), Natural Resources Research Institute (NRRI) at Vel1nillion, and the NOlihern
Experimental Station- Grand Rapids (USFS).
Itasca County Soil and Water Conservation District
Wang, Hong; Hondzo, Miki; Stauffer, Brenda.
Phosphorus Dynamics in Jessie Lake: Mass Flux across the Sediment-Water Interface.
St. Anthony Falls Laboratory.
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