Mongolia is located in Northern Asia bordering on Russia and China. Mongolian culture has been described as unique due to its traditionally nomadic way of living. Since societal transition that took place in 1990, studies on Mongolian family system have primarily focused on quantitative data that provide basic demographic descriptions; there are few qualitative research studies conducted. Much remains to be learned in significant changes in traditional Mongolian values and practices, specifically related to poverty and alcoholism. The “Social Ecological Model” framework was used to explain impacts of societal change on Mongolian families and social issues of unemployment, alcoholism, public service and low quality education affecting families. On the other hand, there are cultural values and principles that have survived through the significant changes in the country, and they are identified as cultural strengths.