Considerable epidemiological research indicates that whole grain foods are associated with lower risk of chronic diseases. However, Americans consume far below the recommended 3 daily servings of whole grains. Little research has focused on factors that influence consumption of specific foods, such as whole grain bread. Examining sensory and behavioral factors through the theory of planned behavior may provide a comprehensive explanation for liking and consumption of whole grain breads. In Phase 1, using descriptive analysis, a lexicon was developed to describe the sensory attributes of 12 commercial 100% whole grain breads. Five breads were representative of the range of breads analyzed, and selected for use in the subsequent bread liking study. Phase 2, part 1 included development and testing of a questionnaire associated with whole grain bread consumption. Next the theory-based questionnaire was used to determine factors that influence whole grain bread consumption among 270 bread consumers recruited at a local grocery store. The mean daily whole grain bread intake was 1.3 servings. Liking, whole grain versus refined grain bread preference, and usual whole grain bread consumption pattern were significant predictors of intention to consume whole grain bread and significantly increased the variance explained by the model compared to the standard model. Intention, whole grain versus refined grain bread preference, and usual whole grain bread consumption pattern were significant predictors of whole grain bread intake and significantly increased the variance explained by the model. During Phase 3 differences in liking ratings were examined among five commercial whole grain breads and if liking ratings were influenced by different consumer groups (whole grain versus refined grain bread preference, type of bread bag returned and propylthiouracil taster groups). Results showed that Cub Foods and Country Hearth breads were most liked and Natural Ovens bread was least liked. Consumer characteristics had no effect on liking ratings. When comparing descriptive analysis sensory attributes and liking ratings, several sensory attributes had a significant effect on bread liking ratings. Consumption of whole grain bread is dependent upon preference and liking of bread and whether one has control over their behavior related to consuming whole grain breads.
University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation. February 2012. Major: Nutrition. Advisor: Leonard Marquart, PhD, RD. 1 computer file (PDF); xii, 282 pages, appendices p. 193-282.
Sjoberg, Sara A..
The influence of sensory and behavioral factors on whole grain bread consumption among a convenience sample of adults..
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