Nonsurgical physicians have increasingly advocated for and adopted the use of data
derived from well-done scientific studies (evidence-based medicine) to assist in
decision making in patient care. Surgeons have, in general, resisted incorporating
evidence-based medicine into their practices, and most surgical research has been
based on expert opinions or findings from small groups of patients. This work will
cover arguments for and against a hierarchy of evidence and for and against
application of higher levels of evidence in the field of surgery.