The burning of high sulfur coal during the Industrial Revolution of England
resulted in air quality deterioration. Anthropogenic emissions are linked to health
problems and environmental degradation. The implementation of environmental emission
control legislation of the 1970s resulted in a significant decrease in sulfur dioxide (SO2)
and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions.
Acid deposition, as a result of industrialization, spatially and temporally varies
throughout the West Midlands of England. This study seeks to quantify the effects of acid
deposition as a result of the Industrial Revolution of the West Midlands using leadlettered
marble gravestone corrosion as a proxy for environmental degradation. Prior to
the implementation of environmental legislation corrosion values were 0.78 mm/100yrs
and following legislation values decreased to 0.54 mm/100yrs indicating the efficacy of
environmental clean-up efforts.
Within individual cemeteries considerable variability exists. Factors that may
contribute to this variability include: tree cover, orientation of stones, algae/lichen cover,
gravestone texture, and local elevation differences. Statistical analysis of cemetery
variables indentified tree cover, gravestone texture, gravestone color (algae/lichen cover),
and local elevations differences to be significant with p-values ≤ 0.5. Tree cover and
gravestone texture were used to adjust corrosion measurements. Adjusted cemetery corrosion rates mapped in ArcGIS® suggest spatial and temporal variability across the
study area. Areas associated with high industrial and/or residential activity correlate to high corrosion rates.
University of Minnesota M.S. thesis. January 2012. Major: Geological sciences. Advisor: Dr. Howard Mooers. 1 computer file (PDF); viii, 122 pages, appendix A.
Cota-Guertin, Avery Rose.
Statistical analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of acid deposition in the West Midlands, England, United Kingdom..
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