This thesis contains a collection of laboratory-based studies designed to characterize the magnetic properties and physical aspects of magnetite that result from deformation or high temperature growth. In Chapter 2, a detailed rock magnetic characterization of rocks containing nanoscale magnetite exsolved from volcanic glass identifies the location of domain-state thresholds through distinct transitions in remanence and susceptibility properties. This unique material is an excellent candidate for standard material to be used in studies of magnetite granulometry. In Chapter 3, theoretical timescales for the growth of sub-microscopic magnetite needles during exsolution from plagioclase are calculated using results of diffusion experiments. Measured diffusivities are modeled to calculate the amount of diffusion-limited growth possible under different conditions of nucleation temperature and cooling rate. In Chapters 4 and 5, the development and evolution of magnetic fabrics are investigated through deformation experiments on synthetic rock-analogues at high temperatures and ductile conditions. Stress-induced changes in rock magnetic properties after deformation are significant. Examination of deformation-induced remagnetization demonstrates that a primary remanence can survive conditions equivalent to moderate metamorphism in certain cases and that petrofabric can play an important role in determining the remanence stability. High-temperature deformation experiments result in a pattern of anisotropy development that indicates plastic deformation of magnetic grains, which is distinct from anisotropy development resulting from different magnetite strain responses. Experimental data are combined with theoretical magnetic anisotropy models and used to estimate effective magnetite strains and strain partitioning from magnetic fabric data in deformed samples. Finally, observations of strong shape-preferred orientation and deformation-induced microstructures in magnetite grains from high-temperature shear experiments indicate plastic deformation of magnetite. Microstructural observations place constraints on the rheological behavior of magnetite and the conditions in which dislocation creep is dominant. These observations prompt a re-examination of the previously established magnetite flow laws which are modified and used to construct new deformation mechanism maps.
University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation. October 2011. Major: Geophysics. Advisor: Bruce M. Moskowitz. 1 computer file (PDF); xii, 173 pages.
Till, Jessica Lynn.
Magnetic and physical characteristics of magnetite associated with deformation and exsolution..
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