LANDSAT images taken in the fall of 1972, 1973, 1974 and 1975 were
analyzed to estimate dates of ice formation on Minnesota lakes. Lakes
located in the northern, central and southern parts of Minnesota were studied.
Lake surface areas and depths were identified from a lake inventory. The
observations derived from the satellite images were compared to theoretical
prediction of freeze-over dates based on seasonal heat budget cycles and
water temperature cycles. The theory was then applied to all of Minnesota
to provide an estimate of average annual freeze-over dates of lakes located
in different parts of the state and having different depths.
LANDSAT images taken in the Spring of 1976 were analyzed to determine
ice break-up dates.
Space Science Center University of Minnesota, National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Stefan, Heinz; Fu, Alec.
Ice Formation On Minnesota Lakes: Use Of Landsat Imagery And Weather Data, To Predict Freeze-Over Dates.
Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory.
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