Since the collapse of the Soviet Union and reestablishment of Latvia’s
independence in 1991, followed by removal of the Soviet-imposed restrictions on human
mobility, there has been an exodus of Latvians to Western countries, some of which, such
as the U.S., already had substantial populations of Latvians since the last wave of
emigration took place during World War II. Consequently, two parallel and mutually
detached Latvian communities have emerged in the U.S. – one consisting of World War
II refugees and their descendants, the second – a largely scattered community of postindependence
immigrants from Latvia, both of whom embody different migration
experiences and expressions of Latvian identity.
This interdisciplinary mixed methods study of intergroup relationships between
Latvian Americans and post-independence immigrants from Latvia, conducted through
the network of Latvian supplementary schools in the United States, which is the main site
where they come together, capture the current status of the relationships and expose
existing barriers that set the two groups apart. In the end, this study investigates what role Latvian supplementary schools play in bridging the two groups.
University of Minnesota M.A. thesis. August 2011. Major: Educational policy and administration. Advisors: Professor Peter Demerath, Professor Gerald Fry. 1 computer file (PDF); ix, 256 pages, appendices 1-2.
Defining boundaries between two immigrant waves from Latvia: a study of Latvian supplementary schools in the U.S..
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