The objective of this research was to develop and test a questionnaire to assess satiety sensations. Factor analysis of satiety related questions revealed five factors: mental hunger, physical hunger, mental fullness, physical fullness and food liking. In the first validation study, thirty participants evaluated satiety feelings produced by oranges and oatmeal at 0min, 60min and 120min after consumption. Food intake from an ad libitum snack offered two hours after breakfast was covertly recorded. The factor scales and traditional single-item scales (hunger, fullness, desire, and prospective consumption) revealed that oatmeal was more satiating than oranges. The factor scales offered enhanced understanding over the traditional scales by showing that oranges produced much more mental hunger and slightly more physical hunger than the oatmeal. The factor scales also had smaller distributions around the means and greater effect sizes than the traditional scales indicating a greater sensitivity to the differences between the oranges and the oatmeal. In a second study, participants evaluated satiety feelings produced by two equal-calorie smoothies that differed only in that one contained cumin to lower acceptability. The more palatable regular smoothie provided greater mental fullness factor sensations than the spiced cumin smoothie. Again, all of the factor scales produced smaller distributions around the means and greater effect sizes. In a third validation study, hunger and satiety of oligofructose, inulin, soluble corn fiber, resistant wheat starch and a control with no added fiber in chocolate crisp bars was evaluated. Food intake was measured at an ad libitum lunch served 180min after breakfast and subjects recorded food intake over the remainder of the 24hr study day. Breath hydrogen and methane and GI tolerance were assessed. While there were no significant differences in hunger or satiety found using the traditional scales or factor scales among the fiber treatment bars, the factor scales exhibited the least amount of variability with smaller standard deviations around the means. The oligofructose bar produced the greatest amount of breath hydrogen, bloating and flatulence ratings while the control bar produced the least. The multi-item hunger and fullness factor scales offer enhanced sensitivity and understanding of satiety produced by foods.
University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation. July 2011. Major: Food science. Advisor: Dr. Zata Vickers. 1 computer file (PDF); xiii, 256 pages,appendices A-X.
Karalus, Melinda B..
The creation and testing of a scale to measure the subjective experiences of hunger and satiety..
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