The goal of the research presented in this report is to analyze,
understand, and simulate the flow field induced by a bubble plume in a lake
or reservoir. This is useful and necessary for the design of lake or reservoir
aeration and destratification projects. Three mathematical models were
developed and laboratory experiments were performed.
Experiments similar to the ones presented here are not available in the
literature but were necessary to understand the governing physical processes
and to verify the mathematical models. What makes these experiments
unique, in comparison with other bubble plume measurements is the
description of the entire flow field (not just the flow in vicinity of the bubble
plume), the inclusion of stratified ambient water, and the evaluation of
destrati:fication over time.
The first. model developed is a modified version of a dynamic 1-D
mathematical model originally formulated by Goossens. The improved
model is based on the research described here and is linked to a general
dynamic lake model MINLAKE. It is a tool useful for lake restoration
projects, particularly for evaluation of different restoration techniques.
The second model is also an integral model of a bubble plume. The
flow field induced by an air bubble plume in stratified ambient water is
presented in the general context of mixing mechanics of water jets and
The third model is a 2-D numerical model that gives insight into the
subregions of the flow field. The 2-D model solves the Reynolds' equations
by using the buoyancy-extended version of the k-e model as a closure of the
turbulent quantities. The effect of the bubbles in the fluid flow is modeled
by imposing internal forces in the region where the air bubbles are present.
A discussion of lake aeration as an oxygen transfer technique is beyond
the scope of the research described herein.
Zic, Kresimir; Stefan, Heinz G..
Analysis and Simulation of Mixing of Stratified Layers or Reservoirs by Air Bubble Plumes.
St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Laboratory.
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