A theoretical and experimental study of the two-dimensional flow of
heated water from a channel into a deep reservoir filled with cold
water was made. Only flows producing a dilution of warm water by entrainment
of cold water were investigated. These flows consisted of a
mixing zone near the outlet followed downstream by a stratified flow.
The outlet flow characteristics, the type of downstream control, and the
geometry of the transition were identified as the essential controlling
parameters for the entrainment. The amount of vertical entrainment in
the mixing zone at the outlet was calculated and measured. The flow in
the mixing zone where the entrainment is produced was found to be a
combination of a buoyant half jet with an inverted internal hydraulic
jump. The simultaneous presence of both inertial and buoyant forces
was responsible for this occurrence. Theoretical and experimental results
show that substantial dilution occurred in the outlet mixing zone,
but actual rates of entrainment were quite sensitive to changes in flow
This report was submitted in fulfillment of Project Number 16130 FSU
under the sponsorship of the Water Quality Office, Environmental
Stefan, H.; Hayakawa, N..
Surface Discharge of Heated Water, Part II: The Two-Dimensional Buoyant Surface Jet and the Internal Hydraulic Jump.
St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Laboratory.
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