This article demonstrates that slope and ratio scores
may have the same psychometric difficulties—low reliability—as difference scores. Empirically, direct
measures and derived scores from Baron’s, Collins’,
Meyer’s, and Posner’s cognitive paradigms were examined
in terms of their reliabilities and cross-correlations.
Reliabilities of the direct measures and their intercorrelations
were high. The derived measures,
which were slope, ratio, and difference scores, had reliabilities
near zero and, therefore, their cross-correlations
were also low. It is concluded that derived
scores, although intuitively appealing as measures of
mental operations, may have inherent psychometric
difficulties that render them of little value for differential
prediction. Index terms: cognitive paradigms,
difference scores, individual differences, prediction,
ratio scores, reliability, slope scores.
Dunlap, William P, Kennedy, Robert S, Harbeson, Mary M & Fowlkes, Jennifer E. (1989). Problems with individual difference measures based on some componential cognitive paradigms. Applied Psychological Measurement, 13, 9-17. doi:10.1177/014662168901300102
Dunlap, William P.; Kennedy, Robert S.; Harbeson, Mary M.; Fowlkes, Jennifer E..
Problems with individual difference measures based on some componential cognitive paradigms.
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