Statement of problem. Pneumatization of the maxillary sinus limits the quantity of
alveolar bone available for implant placement and may result in a lack of primary
stability and difficulty in achieving osseointegration.
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze a cohort of patients
who had implants placed in the posterior maxilla and calculate the prevalence of sinus
augmentation and identify factors associated with it.
Material and methods. With IRB approval, dental records from a population of patients
who had implants placed in the maxillary posterior region, between January 2000 and
December 2004, were used to create a data base. Independent variables were divided into
continuous (age of the patient at stage 1 implant surgery (S1), time between the
extraction and S1, time between the extraction and sinus augmentation, time between the
sinus augmentation and S1) and categorical (gender, implant failure, American Society of
Anesthesiologists system classification, smoking, osteoporosis, residual crestal bone
height, implant position, implant proximity, prostheses type, and implant diameter and
length). The dependent variable was the incidence of a sinus augmentation procedure. Simple logistic regression was used to assess the influence of each of the factors on the
presence of sinus augmentation (P<.05).
Results. The final database included 502 maxillary posterior implants with an overall
survival rate of 93.2% over a mean follow-up period of 35.7 months. Of 502 implants,
272 (54.2%) implants were associated with a sinus augmentation procedure. Among
variables, residual crestal bone height (P<.001), implant position (P<.001), implant iv
proximity (P<.001), prosthesis type (P<.001), implant failure (P<.01), and implant
diameter (P<.01), were statistically associated with sinus augmentation.
Conclusions. Within the limitations of this retrospective study, the results suggest that
more than half (54.2%) of the maxillary posterior implants were involved with a sinus
augmentation procedure. The prevalence of sinus augmentation increased with decreased
residual crestal bone height, more posterior implant locations, and complete or partial
edentulism. Sinus augmentation was significantly associated with implant failure and wide implants.
University of Minnesota M.S. thesis. March 2011. Major: Dentistry. Advisor: James R. Holtan. 1 computer file (PDF); ix, 57 pages.
Prevalence of sinus augmentation associated with maxillary posterior implants..
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