Lake waters of the north-central U.S.A. arc classified into five groups, based on increasing specific conductivity and changes in ionic composition from east to west, from Wisconsin through Minnesota to North and South Dakota, The most dilute group of waters has specific conductivities <29 µmhos -cm-’ at 25°C; the most concentrated group has specific conductances that range from 7,000 to 73,000 µmhos. As conductivity increases all major ions increase, but there is a shift in cation dominance from Ca2+ to Mg2’ to Na’, and in anion dominance from HC03- to SOd2-. This shift partly reflects a westward increase in climatic aridity, and partly a westward sequence of glacial drifts from noncalcareous to calcareous and hence to calcareous with abundant sulfur-bearing minerals. Levels of pH, K, Cl, F, B, and SiO, also show a distinct westward increase. Concentrations of NO,- and Mn increase from east to west, but the trend is less distinct. Concentrations of Fe vary widely without any trend over the range of conductivity. Color, mostly from dissolved organic matter, is controlled chiefly by lake depth, except for lakes with extensive peatlands in their drainage basins.
Gorham E, Dean WE, Sanger JE. The chemical composition of lakes in the north central United States. Limnology and Oceanography 1983;28(2):287-301.
Gorham, E.; Dean, W.E.; Sanger, J.E..
The chemical composition of lakes in the north central United States.
American Society of Limnology and Oceanography.
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